Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter.

6704 Results for the subject "Thermodynamics":

Highlights•Why Prof. Szargut's career had impact on my own career.•Review of the current state of thermodynamics.•Review of common mistakes and misconceptions in thermodynamics.•The graphic evolution of thermodynamics, diagrams and designs.

Adrian Bejan Publication date: 2018/10/01Highlights•The intellectual and social factors on the transfer of thermodynamics to chemistry.•Physicists and chemists on the genesis and development of chemical thermodynamics.•The content of the new knowledge that was transferred from Europe to America.•The appropriation of chemical thermodynamics by the American scientists.•The resistance the chemical thermodynamics felt in Europe and America.

Photis Dais Publication date: 2018/02/01AbstractWe show that, in the framework of Carathéodory's approach to thermodynamics, one can implement black hole thermodynamics by realizing that there exists a quasi-homogeneity symmetry of the Pfaffian form δQrev representing the infinitesimal heat exchanged reversibly by a Kerr–Newman black hole; this allow us to calculate readily an integrating factor, and, as a consequence, a foliation of the thermodynamic manifold can be recovered.

F. Belgiorno Publication date: 2003/06/16AbstractThe first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of a system remains constant, even if it is converted from one form to another.

Bahman Zohuri Publication date: 2018/01/01AbstractSupercritical multicomponent fluid thermodynamics are often built from equations of state. We investigate mathematically such a construction of a Gibbsian thermodynamics compatible at low density with that of ideal gas mixtures starting from a pressure law. We further study the structure of chemical production rates obtained from nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics. As a typical application, we consider the Soave–Redlich–Kwong cubic equation of state and investigate mathematically the corresponding thermodynamics. This thermodynamics is then used to study the stability of H2–O2–N2 mixtures at high pressure and low temperature as well as to illustrate the role of nonidealities in a transcritical H2–O2–N2 flame.

Vincent Giovangigli Publication date: 2012/03/15AbstractAs stated previously, classical thermodynamics is very much a mathematical discipline. Given that the defining equations are known, the theory is developed around multivariable calculus. The theory is actually quite elegant, but it does not predict how to estimate or calculate the fundamental quantities or the properties that characterize them. For this, a transition to statistical thermodynamics is required. Statistical thermodynamics starts with the kinetic theory of gases and treats fluids as made up of large assemblages of atoms or molecules. It can be a very detailed and extensive theory that extends well beyond the subjects of interest to this text. However, a smattering of statistical thermodynamics, including the kinetic theory of gases, will be useful for understanding a number of classical thermodynamics phenomena. A brief sojourn into the kinetic theory of gases is useful.

Bahman Zohuri Publication date: 2018/01/01AbstractThis paper will review recent progress in the covariant formulation of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, with emphasis on two topics: (i) a consistent treatment of transient effects which avoids the paradox of an infinite speed of heat, and (ii) the thermodynamics of black holes.

W. Israel Publication date: 1981/03/01AbstractWe consider the first laws of thermodynamics for a pair of systems made up of the two horizons of a Kerr–Newman black hole. These two systems are constructed in such a way that we only demand their “horizon areas” to be the sum and difference of that of the outer and inner horizons of their prototype. Remarkably, these two copies bear a striking resemblance to the right- and left-movers in string theory and D-brane physics. Our reformulation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics can be thought of as an analogy of thermodynamics of effective string or D-brane models.

Shuang-Qing Wu Publication date: 2005/02/24ABSTRACTA restatement of traditional thermodynamics has been developed to make it more amenable to computer solution. The Thermodynamics Workbench is a computer program designed for modeling thermodynamic problems. It incorporates and demonstrates this approach to thermodynamics and is designed to simplify the creation and use of thermodynamic models. The Workbench is unique in its ability to handle thermodynamic problems in which a generalized approach to equilibrium is required, and its power comes from its unique representation of thermodynamics.

K.J. Meltsner Publication date: 1989/01/01AbstractThe second law of thermodynamics stipulates that the total entropy of a system plus its environment cannot decrease; it can remain constant for a reversible process but must always increase for an irreversible process.

Bahman Zohuri Publication date: 2018/01/01Publisher SummaryThis chapter discusses the importance of thermodynamics and its use as a “logic tool.” One of many quintessential examples of such a use of thermodynamics is Wyman's theory of linked functions. Thermodynamics is commonly either poorly taught or not at all in graduate or undergraduate departments of chemistry or biochemistry. Such courses have caused a large fraction of biochemical researchers and have the impression that thermodynamic approaches are archaic and ancillary to the central issues of biochemistry. Sadly, thermodynamics has seldom been fused with developments in molecular biology, structural analysis, or computational chemistry. Another reason for this narrow and insular perception is that thermodynamics is frequently equated with a single experimental technique—calorimetry. However, all of these perceptions are far from accurate. The chapter explores the ways in which thermodynamics can be an important tool for the study of biological systems.

Michael L. Johnson Publication date: 2009/01/01AbstractWe show that three independent derivations of the Shuttleworth equation, arguably the second most important equation in surface physics, are inconsistent with Hermann’s mathematical structure of thermodynamics [R. Hermann, Geometry, Physics and Systems, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 1973 (Chapter 6)]. The possible implications of this result are discussed.

D.J. Bottomley Publication date: 2009/01/01AbstractWe analyze some models of nonequilibrium systems proposed in the past decade which derive the laws of irreversible thermodynamics from deterministic dynamics. We find that these models do not posses the crucial property of local thermodynamic equilibrium, since they represent noninteracting particles systems. Hence, these models are not suited for a derivation of irreversible thermodynamics. In order to derive the laws of irreversible thermodynamics, it is essential that models with interacting particles be considered.

E.G.D. Cohen Publication date: 2002/04/01AbstractMolecular concepts have been gradually incorporated into chemical thermodynamics. This is done by applying standard thermodynamics manipulations to systems which are restricted by the assumption of a specific molecular model or mechanism. Here we trace the development of this procedure and its applications from Avogadro's hypothesis to modern work on site-directed mutagenesis.

John A. Schellman Publication date: 1997/02/28AbstractMotivated by thermodynamic concepts strongly related to the second law of thermodynamics, this paper deals with the mathematical foundations of thermodynamics to reconstruct some storage functions usable both for the stability analysis and control of homogeneous chemical processes through the case study of non isothermal continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Besides, the equivalence of the storage functions in the thermodynamics framework is also shown.

N. Ha Hoang Publication date: 2016/01/01Highlights•Thermodynamics of porphyrin solvation in DMF was studied.•The method for predicting thermodynamic functions and solubility was examined.•The good agreement between computed and experimental quantities is observed.

Andrey V. Kustov Publication date: 2015/10/01AbstractBioenergetics is concerned with the energy conservation and conversion processes in a living cell, particularly in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This review summarizes the role of thermodynamics in understanding the coupling between the chemical reactions and the transport of substances in bioenergetics. Thermodynamics has the advantages of identifying possible pathways, providing a measure of the efficiency of energy conversion, and of the coupling between various processes without requiring a detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. In the last five decades, various new approaches in thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and network thermodynamics have been developed to understand the transport and rate processes in physical and biological systems. For systems not far from equilibrium the theory of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used, while extended non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used for systems far away from equilibrium. All these ap *Read more...*

AbstractIn contrast to the thermodynamics of fluid surfaces, the thermodynamics of solid surfaces was not elaborated in detail by Gibbs and other founders of surface thermodynamics. During recent decades, significant progress in this field has been achieved in both the understanding of old notions, like chemical potentials, and in formulating new areas. Applying to solid surfaces, basic relationships of classical theory of capillarity, such as the Laplace equation, the Young equation, the Gibbs adsorption equation, the Gibbs-Curie principle, the Wulff theorem and the Dupré rule, were reformulated and generalized. The thermodynamics of self-dispersion of solids and the thermodynamics of contact line phenomena were developed as well. This review provides a fresh insight into the modern state of the thermodynamics of solid surfaces. Not only a solid surface itself, both in a macroscopic body and in the system of fine particles, but also the interaction of solid surfaces with fluid phases *Read more...*

AbstractWe examine the options that central production of φ(1.019) in hadron-hadron collisions is dominated (i) completely by Hagedorn-Frautschi thermodynamics and (ii) by thermodynamics modified by a mild form of Zweig suppression at sufficiently high energy. Predictions on σ(AB → φ + anything), σ(AB → φK+K− + anything), (φπ), (φϱ0), (φω0) ratios at P⊥ ≈ 1 GeVc, are made where A = π, p, p and B = p. These can be readily checked for Elab ≳ 300 GeV at Fermilab and ISR.

S.C. Frautschi Publication date: 1977/01/03AbstractThe thermodynamics underpinning cocrystal formation are derived. The results provide the pharmaceutical scientist with the foundation to experimentally assess the thermodynamic stability of a cocrystal with respect to its component forms. Data for the carbamazepine–nicotinamide system are discussed as an example.

Richard R. Schartman Publication date: 2009/01/05