In the past Adam L. Woodcraft has collaborated on articles with Matthew I. Hollister. One of their most recent publications is Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range. Which was published in journal Cryogenics.

More information about Adam L. Woodcraft research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Adam L. Woodcraft's Articles: (5)

Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range

AbstractAluminium alloys are being used increasingly in cryogenic systems. However, cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made on only a few of the many types in general use. This paper describes a method of predicting the thermal conductivity of any aluminium alloy between the superconducting transition temperature (approximately 1 K) and room temperature, based on a measurement of the thermal conductivity or electrical resistivity at a single temperature. Where predictions are based on low temperature measurements (approximately 4 K and below), the accuracy is generally better than 10%. Useful predictions can also be made from room temperature measurements for most alloys, but with reduced accuracy. This method permits aluminium alloys to be used in situations where the thermal conductivity is important without having to make (or find) direct measurements over the entire temperature range of interest. There is therefore greater scope to choose alloys based on mechanical properties and availability, rather than on whether cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made. Recommended thermal conductivity values are presented for aluminium 6082 (based on a new measurement), and for 1000 series, and types 2014, 2024, 2219, 3003, 5052, 5083, 5086, 5154, 6061, 6063, 6082, 7039 and 7075 (based on low temperature measurements in the literature).

Thermal conductivity measurements of pitch-bonded graphites at millikelvin temperatures: Finding a replacement for AGOT graphite

AbstractPitch-bonded graphites are among the best known thermal insulators at sub-kelvin temperatures, but are very good conductors at higher temperatures. This makes them ideal for mechanical supports which must provide good thermal isolation at an operating temperature below 1 K, but must have good conductance at higher temperatures to aid in initially cooling down an instrument (a “passive heat switch”). One type of graphite, AGOT, has been known as having the lowest thermal conductivity below 1 K not only among graphites, but also compared with any other material. It is, however, no longer available. We have carried out thermal conductivity measurements at temperatures between 60 mK and 4 K on a proposed replacement, POCO AXM-5Q graphite, as well as a sample of AGOT graphite. Our measurements show that both graphites have a difference of about six orders of magnitude in conductivity between room temperature and 100 mK, but that AGOT graphite is not as good an insulator as previously believed. We conclude that AXM-5Q graphite is not only a suitable replacement for AGOT, but in fact is somewhat superior.

Technical NoteProposed designs for a “dry” dilution refrigerator with a 1 K condenser

AbstractRecent development of “dry” dilution refrigerators has used mechanical cryocoolers and Joule–Thomson expansion stages to cool and liquefy the circulating 3He. While this approach has been highly successful, we propose three alternative designs that use independently-cooled condensers. In the first, the circulating helium is precooled by a mechanical cooler, and liquified by self-contained 4He sorption coolers. In the second, the helium is liquefied by a closed-cycle, continuous flow 4He refrigerator operating from a room temperature pump. Finally, the third scheme uses a separate 4He Joule–Thomson stage to cool the 3He condenser. The condensers in all these schemes are analogous to the “1-K pot” in a conventional dilution refrigerator. Such an approach would be advantageous in certain applications, such as instrumentation for astronomy and particle physics experiment, where a thermal stage at approximately 1 K would allow an alternative heat sink to the still for electronics and radiation shielding, or quantum computer research where a large number of coaxial cables must be heat sunk in the cryostat. Furthermore, the behaviour of such a refrigerator is simplified due to the separation of the condenser stage from the dilution circuit, removing the complex interaction between the 4-K, Joule–Thomson, still and mixing chamber stages found in current dry DR designs.

Thermal conductance at millikelvin temperatures of woven ribbon cable with phosphor-bronze clad superconducting wires

AbstractWoven Nomex® ribbon cables made up with superconducting niobium–titanium wire are used at millikelvin temperatures in many large cryogenic instruments. It is important to know how much heat in transmitted down such cables. However, the conductivity of the materials used is not well known. Another problem is that the wires are normally clad with alloys which exhibit some magnetism. This is a potential problem for instruments employing superconducting detectors. A safe non-magnetic alternative to the usual materials is phosphor-bronze clad niobium–titanium wiring. However, there is little experience with such wires. We have therefore measured the conductance of a ribbon cable made up with these wires. The measured values are in good agreement with our predictions, suggesting that the values we have used to model the cable are sufficiently accurate, and could therefore be used to predict the performance of ribbon cables using other cladding materials, so long as the conductivity of the cladding is reasonably well known. As part of our analysis, we consider the likely variation in thermal conductivity values for C51000 phosphor bronze caused by legitimate variations in composition.

Detectors for sub-millimetre continuum astronomy

AbstractSub-mm astronomy has seen an explosive growth in recent years. This has been driven by improvements in detector technology, and in particular the move from single pixel photometric instruments to ones containing arrays of hundreds and even thousands of pixels. Sub-mm detectors are different from those used in astronomy at most other wavelengths in that they are not produced commercially. Instead, research, development and construction is carried out in universities and government laboratories. We are also at an interesting point in that several competing detector technologies are under development and it is not yet clear which will be used in future instruments. I review current instruments as well as the issues facing us in developing the next generation of instruments, operating both on the ground and from space.

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