In the past Paulo Francisco Cesar has collaborated on articles with Carla Müller Ramos and Daniela Micheline dos Santos. One of their most recent publications is Original ArticlesInfluence of shade and storage time on the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness of composites used for indirect restorations☆☆☆★★★♢. Which was published in journal The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.

More information about Paulo Francisco Cesar research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Paulo Francisco Cesar's Articles: (8)

Original ArticlesInfluence of shade and storage time on the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness of composites used for indirect restorations☆☆☆★★★♢

AbstractStatement of Problem. Fracture resistance, elastic modulus, and hydrolytic degradation resistance are important properties of indirect composite restorations. Composite systems developed specifically for indirect application are said to have enhanced mechanical properties due to their elevated monomer conversion. Purpose. This study evaluated the influence of shade and the effect of 30-day water storage on the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness of 4 commercially available indirect composite systems and 1 composite used with the direct technique. Material and Methods. A variety of commercially available indirect resin composites (Artglass, Belleglass, Sculpture, and Targis) and 1 directly placed composite (Z100, control) were used. Specimens made with either incisal or dentin shade (n = 10) were fractured with a 3-point bending test. Pre-failure loads corresponding to specific displacements of the crosshead were used for flexural modulus calculation. Knoop hardness was measured on fragments (n = 3) obtained after the flexural test. Tests were performed after 24 hours and after a 30-day water storage at 37°C. Flexural strength data were analyzed with the Weibull distribution. Flexural modulus and Knoop hardness data were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results. In general, the directly placed composite (Z100) demonstrated flexural strength similar to that of Artglass, Targis, and Sculpture. Belleglass presented the highest flexural strength (221.7 MPa for incisal shade after 24 hours storage; 95% confidence interval: 208.3-235.4). Z100 demonstrated the highest flexural modulus (range: 10.9 ± 0.6 to 12.0 ± 0.9 GPa) and Targis the lowest (range: 5.1 ± 0.5 to 5.9 ± 0.9 GPa). Sculpture was the only material that showed differences in flexural strength with respect to shade (incisal-24 hours: 149.8 MPa; incisal-30 days: 148.7 MPa; dentin-24 hours: 200.0 MPa; dentin-30 days: 177.9 MPa). The flexural modulus and hardness of the dentin shade of Sculpture were higher than those of the incisal shade after 30 days. Belleglass also showed a significant difference in flexural modulus (dentin-24 hours: 11.1 GPa; incisal-24 hours: 9.6 GPa). The effect of water storage was more evident on hardness since all composite systems softened after 30 days. Prolonged water storage decreased flexural strength only for Artglass-dentin and Z100, both incisal and dentin shades. Water aging did not affect the flexural modulus of any composite tested. Conclusion. In general, indirect composites did not show enhanced mechanical properties compared to the directly placed composite. Property differences due to shade were more evident for Sculpture. Prolonged water storage had a deleterious effect on the hardness of all composites tested. However, water storage did not affect the flexural strength of most of the indirect composites or the flexural modulus of any composite tested. (J Prosthet Dent 2001;86:289-96.)

Bond strength and Raman analysis of the zirconia-feldspathic porcelain interface

Statement of problemZirconia has the best mechanical properties of the available ceramic systems. However, the stability of the zirconia–feldspathic porcelain interface may be jeopardized by the presence of the chipping and debonding of the feldspathic porcelain.PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of 3 cold isostatic pressed zirconia materials and a feldspathic veneer by analyzing their interface with micro–Raman spectroscopy.Material and methodsThe test groups were experimental zirconia, Zirkonzahn zirconia, and Schuetz zirconia. Blocks of partially sintered zirconia were cut into disks (n=20) and then veneered with a feldspathic porcelain. Half of the specimens from each group (n=10) were incubated in 37°C water for 24 hours, and the other half were thermocycled. All the specimens were then subjected to shear testing. The fractured areas were analyzed with optical stereomicroscopy and classified as adhesive, cohesive, or an adhesive-cohesive failure. Spectral patterns were examined to detect bands related to the zirconia and feldspathic porcelain phases. The shear strength data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA.ResultsNo significant differences in shear bond strength were observed among the 3 groups, regardless of whether or not the specimens were thermocycled. Adhesive failures were the most prevalent types of failure (70%). Raman spectra were clearly distinguished for all the materials, which showed the presence of tetragonal and monoclinic phases.ConclusionsThe controlled production of the experimental zirconia did not influence the results of the bond strength. Raman analysis suggested a process of interdiffusion by the presence of peaks associated with the zirconia and feldspathic ceramics.

Research and EducationAging effect of atmospheric air on lithium disilicate ceramic after nonthermal plasma treatment

AbstractStatement of problemNonthermal plasma (NTP) treatment is an alternative technique for promoting the adhesion of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. However, no study has evaluated whether the surface modifications are affected by atmospheric air aging.PurposeThe purposes of this in vitro study were to characterize the lithium disilicate surface after depositing an organosilicon film with NTP treatment and to verify the surface energy before and after atmospheric air aging up to 30 days.Material and methodsSixteen lithium disilicate disks (10×3 mm) were prepared, and their surfaces were treated with a mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane and argon, followed by oxygen plasma treatment, both for 30 minutes. The lithium disilicate surface was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Surface energy analysis was performed before (T0) and immediately after NTP treatment (T1) and after atmospheric air aging for 7 (T2), 15 (T3), and 30 days (T4). Data were submitted to analysis of variance followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05).ResultsCarbon, oxygen, and silicon were identified on the disilicate surface after NTP treatment, suggesting organosilicon film adhesion. Air aging did not modify the film morphology. At T1, the surface energy was significantly higher compared with other periods, and the water contact angle on the disilicate surface was reduced to 0 degrees. Similar surface energy was observed for T0, T2, T3, and T4.ConclusionsOn the basis of the results of this in vitro study, NTP treatment can promote bonding to lithium disilicate surfaces because of its high surface wettability. However, after air aging, the wettability was not durable.

Microstructure characterization and SCG of newly engineered dental ceramics

Highlights•The feldspathic and polymer infiltrated ceramics (Enamic) have completely different microstructures. The former present crystals while the latter is amorphous.•The lithium dissilicate and the Zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate presented greater susceptibility to stress corrosion than the other ceramics.•The zirconia present in the lithium silicate is tetragonal zirconia.

ReviewADM guidance—Ceramics: Fracture toughness testing and method selection

AbstractObjectivesThe objective is within the scope of the Academy of Dental Materials Guidance Project, which is to provide dental materials researchers with a critical analysis of fracture toughness (FT) tests such that the assessment of the FT of dental ceramics is conducted in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible way.MethodsFracture mechanics theory and FT methodologies were critically reviewed to introduce basic fracture principles and determine the main advantages and disadvantages of existing FT methods from the standpoint of the dental researcher.ResultsThe recommended methods for FT determination of dental ceramics were the Single Edge “V” Notch Beam (SEVNB), Single Edge Precracked Beam (SEPB), Chevron Notch Beam (CNB), and Surface Crack in Flexure (SCF). SEVNB’s main advantage is the ease of producing the notch via a cutting disk, SEPB allows for production of an atomically sharp crack generated by a specific precracking device, CNB is technically difficult, but based on solid fracture mechanics solutions, and SCF involves fracture from a clinically sized precrack. The IF test should be avoided due to heavy criticism that has arisen in the engineering field regarding the empirical nature of the calculations used for FT determination.SignificanceDental researchers interested in FT measurement of dental ceramics should start with a broad review of fracture mechanics theory to understand the underlying principles involved in fast fracture of ceramics. The choice of FT methodology should be based on the pros and cons of each test, as described in this literature review.

ADM guidance—Ceramics: guidance to the use of fractography in failure analysis of brittle materials

AbstractObjectivesTo provide background information and guidance as to how to use fractography accurately, a powerful tool for failure analysis of dental ceramic structures.MethodsAn extended palette of qualitative and quantitative fractography is provided, both for in vivo and in vitro fracture surface analyses. As visual support, this guidance document will provide micrographs of typical critical ceramic processing flaws, differentiating between pre- versus post sintering cracks, grinding damage related failures and occlusal contact wear origins and of failures due to surface degradation.ResultsThe documentation emphasizes good labeling of crack features, precise indication of the direction of crack propagation (dcp), identification of the fracture origin, the use of fractographic photomontage of critical flaws or flaw labeling on strength data graphics. A compilation of recommendations for specific applications of fractography in Dentistry is also provided.SignificanceThis guidance document will contribute to a more accurate use of fractography and help researchers to better identify, describe and understand the causes of failure, for both clinical and laboratory-scale situations. If adequately performed at a large scale, fractography will assist in optimizing the methods of processing and designing of restorative materials and components. Clinical failures may be better understood and consequently reduced by sending out the correct message regarding the fracture origin in clinical trials.

The potential of novel primers and universal adhesives to bond to zirconia

AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the adhesive potential of novel zirconia primers and universal adhesives to surface-treated zirconia substrates.MethodsZirconia bars were manufactured (3.0 mm × 3.0 mm × 9.0 mm) and treated as follows: no treatment (C); air abrasion with 35 μm alumina particles (S); air abrasion with 30 μm silica particles using one of two systems (Rocatec or SilJet) and; glazing (G). Groups C and S were subsequentially treated with one of the following primers or adhesives: ZP (Z-Prime Plus), AZ (AZ Primer); MP (Monobond Plus); SU (ScotchBond Universal) and; EA (an Experimental Adhesive). Groups Rocatec and SilJet were silanized prior to cementation. Samples form group G were further etched and silanized. Bars were cemented (Multilink) onto bars of a silicate-based ceramic (3.0 mm × 3.0 mm × 9.0 mm) at 90° angle, thermocycled (2.500 cycles, 5–55 °C, 30 s dwell time), and tested in tensile strength test. Failure analysis was performed on fractured specimens to measure the bonding area and crack origin.ResultsSpecimens from group C did not survive thermocycling, while CMP, CSU and CEA groups survived thermocycling but rendered low values of bond strength. All primers presented a better bond performance after air abrasion with Al2O3 particles. SilJet was similar to Rocatec, both presenting the best bond strength results, along with SMP, SSU and CEA. G promoted intermediate bond strength values. Failure mode was predominately adhesive on zirconia surface combined to cohesive of the luting agent.ConclusionsUniversal adhesives (MP, SU, EA) may be a considerable alternative for bonding to zirconia, but air abrasion is still previously required. Air abrasion with silica particles followed by silane application also presented high bond strength values.

Research PaperFailure modes of Y-TZP abutments with external hex implant-abutment connection determined by fractographic analysis

Highlights•The predominant fracture pattern for Y-TZP abutment was at the connecting region.•Discriminatory landmarks established the reasons why the fracture pattern occurred.•Failure started where Y-TZP abutment was in contact with the retention screw edges.•Present findings indicated that the screw head should have a rounded-edge design.•Present findings may also be used as reference for further fractographic analysis.

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