AbstractThe problem of using the chemical potential of a solid in interfacial thermodynamics and the anisotropy of chemical potential is discussed. A (typical for solids) difference between surface-free energy and surface tension is shown to be the consequence of non-uniformity of chemical potential in a solid interface. A generalized adsorption equation is formulated for deformable solids.

AbstractIn contrast to the thermodynamics of fluid surfaces, the thermodynamics of solid surfaces was not elaborated in detail by Gibbs and other founders of surface thermodynamics. During recent decades, significant progress in this field has been achieved in both the understanding of old notions, like chemical potentials, and in formulating new areas. Applying to solid surfaces, basic relationships of classical theory of capillarity, such as the Laplace equation, the Young equation, the Gibbs adsorption equation, the Gibbs-Curie principle, the Wulff theorem and the DuprÃ© rule, were reformulated and generalized. The thermodynamics of self-dispersion of solids and the thermodynamics of contact line phenomena were developed as well. This review provides a fresh insight into the modern state of the thermodynamics of solid surfaces. Not only a solid surface itself, both in a macroscopic body and in the system of fine particles, but also the interaction of solid surfaces with fluid phases, such as wetting phenomenon, will be analyzed. As the development of surface thermodynamics has given a powerful impetus to the creation of new experimental methods, some of these will be described as examples.

AbstractAsymptotics have been obtained of distribution functions and of the pressure tensor in the surface layer of a simple fluid.