Biography:

In the past R.R. Sharma has collaborated on articles with J.P. Nagpal and S. Vijay Rakesh Reddy. One of their most recent publications is The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in normal and protein-deficient female rats. Which was published in journal Biochemical Medicine.

More information about R.R. Sharma research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

R.R. Sharma's Articles: (10)

The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in normal and protein-deficient female rats

AbstractEffect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was studied in female protein-deficient and normal pair-fed rats. Treatment with this drug did not cause any change in organ weight, microsomal protein, and soluble protein yield per gram of tissue in both groups. MPA administration resulted in significant increases in the content of cytochrome P-450 and b5, and activities of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and NADPH-Cyt c reductase in both pair-fed control and protein-deficient rats. However, the content of glutathione and activity of glutathione-S-transferase were not affected appreciably. The present study suggests that MPA treatment induces drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver to almost the same extent in both protein-deficient and normal pair-fed rats.

The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in normal and protein-deficient female rats

AbstractEffect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was studied in female protein-deficient and normal pair-fed rats. Treatment with this drug did not cause any change in organ weight, microsomal protein, and soluble protein yield per gram of tissue in both groups. MPA administration resulted in significant increases in the content of cytochrome P-450 and b5, and activities of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and NADPH-Cyt c reductase in both pair-fed control and protein-deficient rats. However, the content of glutathione and activity of glutathione-S-transferase were not affected appreciably. The present study suggests that MPA treatment induces drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver to almost the same extent in both protein-deficient and normal pair-fed rats.

Chapter 6 - Use of Irradiation for Postharvest Disinfection of Fruits and Vegetables

AbstractSince ages, there is a constant war by the human kind against the food spoilage caused by infestation, contamination, and deterioration. The postharvest losses are enormous worldwide especially in the perishable commodities, viz., fruits and vegetables which is believed to be as high as 50%–100% depending on the crop and season. With the ever-increasing world population, any preventable loss of food is intolerable and should be tried maximum for reducing the postharvest losses to the possible extent. The other major angle for the postharvest losses is the food safety aspects as they are directly correlated with the consumer health. Although many techniques have been developed and employed for reducing the devastating consequences of food wastage and foodborne illnesses, no method is best suitable for all the commodities. Also, most of them are thermal based and results in significant nutritional and sensory losses. Thus the search for an alternative has led to the discovery of irradiation treatment which could sterilize the commodity without raising its surface temperature considerably. Decades of research has proved that irradiation treatment could reduce the food spoilage, infestation, and/or contamination by other foodborne organisms. However, there is a great apprehension among the major world consumers, especially those from developing countries regarding the consumption of irradiated food products. This is mainly because of lack of proper understanding and confusion between the process of irradiation and the contamination with radioactivity. Thus there lies a great responsibility with the researchers to prove the safety of irradiation for food applications and convince the consumers for their better health and prosperity.

Pruning intensity modifies canopy microclimate, and influences sex ratio, malformation incidence and development of fruited panicles in ‘Amrapali’ mango (Mangifera indica L.)

AbstractTo observe effect of pruning intensity on microclimate modification, sex ratio, malformation incidence and number of fruited panicles in ‘Amrapali’ mango trees under high-density planting were subjected to tipping, light, moderate and heavy pruning after fruit harvesting with un-pruned trees as control. Observations on canopy temperature and relative humidity were recorded during August (just after pruning) and March (during flowering) respectively. Similarly, sex ratio and malformation incidence were recorded during peak flowering season and number of fruited panicles during 1st week of May every year. Our observations revealed that relative humidity was highest (61.4%) in un-pruned trees and lowest in severely pruned trees (53.4%) but a reverse trend was observed for temperature. Sex ratio was highest (35.9) in flowers that appeared in panicles of un-pruned trees and lowest (26.6) in flowers of severely pruned trees. Flowers that appeared in panicles at treetop, had comparatively lower sex ratio (27.7) than those, which appeared at lower canopy heights. Malformation incidence was highest (44.2%) in panicles that appeared in un-pruned trees and lowest (36.2%) in panicles that appeared in severely pruned trees. Similarly, panicles that appeared at the treetop had lower malformation incidence (37.2%) than those, which appeared at lower canopy heights. Further, highest fruited panicles appeared in moderately pruned trees (80.3) and lowest in un-pruned trees (24.6). Fruited panicles appeared in their maximum at canopy top (87.4), but their number was drastically reduced at lower canopy heights. All the measured parameters were significantly influenced by the interaction, pruning intensity × canopy height. In all, moderate pruning was the best for all practical purposes.

Gibberellic acid influences the production of malformed and button berries, and fruit yield and quality in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.)

AbstractExperiments were conducted to observe the effects of foliar application of gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting and various disorders in ‘Chandler’ strawberry. GA3 (75 ppm) was applied to the strawberry plants either during mid-November (at fruit bud differentiation stage), or mid-February (pre-flowering stage) or at both times. Fruit under control were sprayed with tap water only. Observations were recorded on vegetative attributes like crown height, crown spread, petiole length, leaf number, leaf area; flowering and fruit set, fruit size; production of albino, malformed and button berries, total yield and marketable fruit yield and quality parameters, like juice content, TSS, ascorbic acid contents, acidity etc. Results indicated that GA3 (75 ppm) spray either during mid-November or mid-February or at both times has favourably influenced all vegetative attributes of ‘Chandler’ strawberry over control. Similarly, fruit set was increased, and production of malformed and button berries was reduced, but albinism remained unaffected. Although individual berry weight was reduced slightly, but fruit number, total as well as marketable yield was increased tremendously over control with no adverse effect on fruit quality parameters. In all, spraying GA3 both during mid-November and mid-February was much more effective in achieving the desirable results than single application of GA3 either during mid-November or mid-February.

Short communicationEffect of paclobutrazol and salinity on ion leakage, proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in mango (Mangifera indica L.)

AbstractA study was conducted to investigate the effects of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on ion leakage (IL), proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) of 1-year-old ‘Olour’ mango plants subjected to NaCl stress. Plants were treated with two levels of salt, i.e., 0.0 g NaCl (control) and 25 g NaCl/25 kg soil and three levels of paclobutrazol (PBZ) solution (0.0 (control), 750 and 1500 mg/l). Ion leakage, proline content and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly altered by both salinity and PBZ treatments. Results indicated that PBZ (1500 mg/l) mitigated the salinity stress and reduced ion leakage of mango seedlings by 64% over non-PBZ-treated salinised plants. PBZ upregulated the endogenous proline content and salinised plants treated with PBZ (1500 mg/l) had 17% higher proline content than salinised plants without PBZ treatment. Higher antioxidant enzyme activity was also observed in salinised plants treated by PBZ than salinised plants without PBZ treatments. Moreover, higher dose of PBZ (1500 mg/l) resulted in higher activity of these enzymes in mango leaves. In comparison to salinised plants without PBZ treatment, salinised plants treated with PBZ (1500 mg/l) had higher SOD (24%), CAT (46%) and POD (163%) activities. Our results suggest that PBZ application under salt stress conditions alters the equilibrium between free radical production and enzymatic defense reactions in mango by enhancing the proline content and free radical scavenging capacity.

Effect of chitosan coating on postharvest life and quality of plum during storage at low temperature

Highlights•Chitosan coating @ 2% was applied on ‘Santa Rosa’ plums for extension of the storage life.•Physical, physiological and chemical attributes were recorded at 7 days interval.•Chitosan coating effectively maintained quality and enhanced the storage life of plums up to 35 days at 1 ± 1 °C.

O.R. ApplicationsOptimal installation policies of additional water supply facilities for a growing population

AbstractThis paper considers the problem of installation of additional facilities in water supply system to meet the demands of an increasing population. Dynamic programming has been used to minimize a performance index based on the waiting cost of the population needing water supply, and cost of unutilized capacity. These two costs will ensure the proper size of additional facilities to be installed at a particular time. Assuming that water requirement over a certain time period in future has been estimated, optimal installation times of additional facilities in water supply system and optimal number of such installations over the given time period have been determined. Though the present model does not involve the installation cost explicitly, it is inherently present in form of cost of unutilized capacity and optimal number of installations.

Original ArticleEffect of bromhexeine on sputum amoxycillin levels in lower respiratory infections

Bromhexeine has been widely used as an adjunct in the management of lower respiratory infections and is usefulin altering the physical characteristics of sputum. Its effect on the sputum penetration of an antibiotic has been sparsely studied. The present study highlights the improvement in sputum amoxycillin (amoxy) levels when a combination tablet, amoxy 500 mg plus bromhexeine 8 mg, is administered as compared to plain amoxy 500 mg. Sputum amoxy levels were significantly higher in the combination group (0.674 ± 0.588 μg ml−) as compared to 0.272±0.19 μg ml−1 in the amoxy group (P=0.028). The clinical responses assessed by the physician as well as the patient were significantly better in the amoxy plus bromhexeine group as compared to the amoxy group. The radiological and bacteriological responses were similar in both groups. There was no increase in the side-effects due to bromhexeine and, overall, its use can be recommended in the treatment of acute lower respiratory infections.

Short CommunicationVermicompost substitution influences growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)

AbstractStudies were conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of ‘Chandler’ strawberry. For this, 4 levels of vermicompost (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 t ha−1) were supplemented with inorganic fertilizers to balance fertilizer requirement of strawberry under semi-arid region of northern India. The vermicompost was incorporated into top 10 cm layer of soil, which was supplemented on the basis of chemical analysis, with amount of inorganic N, P, K fertilizer calculated to equalize the recommended dose of nutrients. Vermicompost application increased plant spread (10.7%), leaf area (23.1%) and dry matter (20.7%), and increased total fruit yield (32.7%). Substitution of vermicompost drastically reduced the incidence of physiological disorders like albinism (16.1–4.5%); fruit malformation (11.5–4.0%) and occurrence of grey mould (10.4–2.1%) in strawberry indicating that vermicompost had significant role in reducing nutrient-related disorders and disease like Botrytis rot, and thereby increasing the marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better quality parameters. Fruit harvested from plant receiving vermicompost were firmer, have higher TSS, ascorbic acid content and lower acidity, and have attractive colour. All these parameters appeared to be dose dependent and best results were achieved @ 7.5 t ha−1, however, beyond this dose of vermicompost, there was not significant influence on these parameters.

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