One of their most recent publications is The nature of the potentiostatic current oscillations at iron/sulfuric acid solution interfaces. Which was published in journal Electrochimica Acta.

More information about Chao Wang research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Chao Wang's Articles: (119)

The nature of the potentiostatic current oscillations at iron/sulfuric acid solution interfaces

AbstractThe potentiostatic current oscillations at Fe—0.5 mol dm−3 H2SO4 interfaces are studied by using a holographic microphotographic technique. During the periodic current oscillation, a thick film is observed to dissolve and form regularly at the iron—solution interface. This thick film, which is probably of Fe(OH)2, provides a local high pH region which assists the production of Fe3O4 and help them remain temporarily stable. On the other hand, the backward diffusion of H+ in bulk solution will cause Fe(OH)2 and Fe3O4 to dissolve in sequence, thus the iron electrode is reactivated. Holographic microphotography is a very useful tool in studying electrode processes at the electrode—electrolyte interface.

Short communicationThe characterization of a human RHAMM cDNA: conservation of the hyaluronan-binding domains☆

AbstractA full-length human RHAMM cDNA clone was isolated by a combination of screening a human breast cDNA expression library with the murine RHAMM 2 cDNA as well as 5' RACE and RT-PCR using messenger RNA from human breast cell line (MCF-10A). The full-length cDNA contained 725 aa that encoded an 84 kDa protein. Although the coding region of the human RHAMM cDNA resembles the murine RHAMM v4, it has additional unique N-terminal (489 bp) and C-terminal (33 bp) regions. Also, only 1 of 5 repeat sequences encoded in the murine cDNA are present in human cDNA. The overall homology between the overlapping region of human and mouse RHAMM v4 cDNA clone is 85%, but the HA binding motif (B[X7]B), shown to be critical for the signaling capability of this receptor, is 100% conserved.

Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: A spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England

AbstractTraffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation.The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

Investigation on the application of titania nanorod arrays to the determination of chemical oxygen demand

AbstractIn the present paper, the TiO2 nanorod arrays electrode was developed as a sensor for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a photoelectrochemical degradation principle. Effects of common parameters, such as applied potential, light intensity and pH on its analytical performance were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the nanorod arrays electrode was successfully applied in the COD determination for both synthetic and real samples. In the COD determination, the proposed method can achieve a practical detection limit of 18.3 mg L−1 and a linear range of 20–280 mg L−1. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method were well correlated with those obtained using the conventional (i.e., dichromate) COD determination method. The main advantages of this COD determination method were its simplicity, long term stability and environmental friendly (corrosive and toxic reagents not consumed). This work would open a new application area (COD determination) of the TiO2 nanorod arrays.

Wayside acoustic defective bearing detection based on improved Dopplerlet transform and Doppler transient matching

Highlights•A double-searching algorithm is developed to improve effectiveness of ADBD system.•This algorithm could extract useful information in a heavy noise background.•There is no pre-measurement carried out in the algorithm.•Proposed algorithm has superior performance than the existing method.•Proposed method has been verified by simulation and experimental cases.

Selenoprotein K modulate intracellular free Ca2+ by regulating expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein

AbstractSelenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa selenoprotein, which may be involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune response. To explore the function of SelK in the process of immune response, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of recombinant plasmids to down-regulate the expression of SelK gene in vitro. These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the expression of SelK at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration were significantly down-regulated in anti-CD3 stimulated SelK-knockdown cells. The expression of Interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) and the secretion of Interleukin 4 (IL-4), which play a significant role in the process of T cell activation and proliferation, were also reduced in SelK-knockdown cells. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an optimum concentration of 5 μM could up-regulate SelK expression and reverse the change of the expression of CHERP and the intracellular free calcium caused by SelK-knockdown. These results hereby imply SelK may regulate the release of Ca2+ by CHERP and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of T cell by TCR stimulation.

Direct interaction between selenoprotein R and Aβ42

AbstractAmyloid-β (Aβ) peptides have taken a central role in AD research, the aggregation of Aβ peptide is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 35th amino acid was methionine (Met) in Aβ peptides and it's redox state is critical in determining the biological activity of Aβ. It has been suggested that oxidation of Met35 (Met35O) plays a key role in the formation of paranuclei and in the control of oligomerization pathway choice. As an antioxidative selenoenzyme, Selenoprotein R (SelR) plays important roles in reducing the R-form of MetO to Met to maintain intracellular redox balance. However, the relationship between SelR and Aβ was little investigated. Here, we found that SelR can directly interact with Aβ42, and the interaction between SelR and Aβ42 was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), and pull-down assays. SelR is closely related to AD, its biological functions in human brain become a research focus. This work implies that SelR makes it capable of modulating Aβ42 aggregation and provides a novel avenue for further study on the mechanism of SelR in AD prevention.

Research ReportSpontaneous and visible light-induced ultraweak photon emission from rat eyes☆

AbstractHere, we present the first experimental in vitro evidence of the existence of spontaneous and visible light-induced ultraweak photon emission from freshly isolated whole eye, lens, vitreous humor, and retina samples from rats. These results suggest that the photochemical source of retinal discrete noise, as well as retinal phosphenes, may originate from natural bioluminescent photons within the eyes. During normal vision, the eyes are continuously exposed to ambient powerful photons that pass through various parts of the eyes, which can produce ultraweak delayed bioluminescent photons that arise from diverse parts of the eyes. Although the importance and possible role of ambient light-induced permanent delayed photons (within different parts of the eyes) during vision requires further investigation, our study may provide evidence of an origin of discrete dark noise and retinal phosphenes.

The role of grafting force and surface wettability in interfacial enhancement of carbon nanotube/carbon fiber hierarchical composites

AbstractThe grafting force of carbon nanotube (CNT) on carbon fiber (CF) and the wettability of CF surface were experimentally studied, where hierarchical CNT/CF reinforcement was prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Then, their effects on interfacial improvement were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The results show that the CNT/CF grafting force is so strong, more than 5 μN, and CNT/CF attachment can sustain the fracture of the CNTs. This is expected to be contributed to the improvement of interfacial properties. However, the deposited catalyst deteriorates the wettability, which could seriously degrade the interfacial properties. As a result, experimental results from the micro-droplet test show that there is only a 30% increase in the interfacial shear strength of hierarchical CNT/CF reinforced composite comparing with that of as-received CF reinforced composite. An analytical model was developed to predict the effects of CNT/CF grafting force on interfacial improvement, and the predicted results are in agreement with the experimental one.

Mechanical characteristics of individual multi-layer graphene-oxide sheets under direct tensile loading

AbstractThe mechanical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) play a critical role in its great applications. In this study, based on the experimental fracture data of individual multilayer free-standing GO sheets under tensile load, in combination with finite element analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the failure strength, strain, and Young’s modulus are estimated to be 4–5 GPa, 8–15%, and 34–77 GPa, respectively. MD is used to disclose the effects of the structural characteristics of GO on the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms along both the armchair and zigzag directions. The failure strength and Young’s modulus of GO are found to slowly decrease with the increase in the ratio of hydroxyl and epoxy groups. The reason is that the breakage of sp3 bonds in the epoxy groups occurs prior to the breakage of sp3 bonds in hydroxyl groups. The former can lead to the formation of heptagonal rings that are able to sustain large strain and insignificantly implicate their surrounding bonds, whereas the latter may result in the complete fracture failure of GO. The fracture of multilayer GO sheets is initiated at the surface sheet due to the intrinsic absence of half-cooperative hydrogen bonding, which may lead to structural instability.

The microscopic deformation mechanism of 3D graphene foam materials under uniaxial compression

AbstractRecent experiments have shown that the graphene foam material exhibits a rubber-like constitutive behavior and a near-zero Poisson's ratio. We have performed coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations, which show that these intriguing phenomena can be attributed to the microstructure deformation, rearrangement and compaction in three stages, respectively. The elastic deformation of microstructures leads to the initial linear behavior of the graphene foam material. Microstructure rearrangement, including bending, self-folding and flake-rotation, should be responsible for the second stage with a good performance of deformation but with a low bearing capacity. Microstructure compaction leads to a high bearing capacity at the last stage. A near-zero Poisson's ratio of the material within a certain range of compressive strain is also found to be due to the microstructure rearrangement, which induces soft flakes to fill the empty space without volume expansion in the other directions. Furthermore, it demonstrates that Poisson's ratio of such a type of material can be further tuned by the stiffness of graphene flakes as well as the amplitude of external strain. This study highlights the promise of graphene foam materials for energy absorption and dissipation under extreme conditions.

A theoretical study on the structural dependences of third-order optical nonlinearities of heterocycle-substituted polymethine cyanine chromophores

Highlights•Combining TD-DFT and two-state SOS approach to calculate the static γ.•Providing strategies to enhance χ(3) in non-centrosymmetric cyanine dyes.•Utilizing electron density difference to study the charge transfer properties.

Efficient helium recondensing using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

AbstractThis paper introduces helium recondensing in a 4000 l dewar using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler at Amundsen–Scott research station at the South Pole. The helium dewar has a normal boil-off rate of 14 l/day. Two features of cooling the dewar neck by helium vapor and precooling helium gas to be liquefied ensured high efficiency of the pulse tube recondenser in this application. The liquefier/recondenser has being successfully operating in the dewar at South Pole station since February 2005. It not only maintains zero boil-off of the dewar, but also liquefies helium gas supplied from outside of the dewar with a rate around 2.7 l/day.

Intermediate cooling from pulse tube and regenerator in a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

AbstractThis paper introduces intermediate cooling by thermally attaching heat exchangers on the second stage pulse tube and regenerator in a commercial 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. Due to the large enthalpy flow in the 2nd stage pulse tube and regenerator, both intermediate heat exchangers on the pulse tube and regenerator can provide cooling capacities in the temperature range of 5–15 K without or with minor effect on the performance of the 4 K stage. Extracting cooling capacity from the pulse tube or regenerator reduces the 1st stage cooling performance in the present study. The joint intermediate heat exchanger on the pulse tube and regenerator has demonstrated promising results for applications.

A vibration free cryostat using pulse tube cryocooler

AbstractThis paper introduces a new vibration free cryostat cooled by liquid helium and a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. The cryogenic device mounts on the sample cooling station which is cooled by liquid helium. The boil off helium is recondensed by the pulse tube cryocooler, thus the cryostat maintains zero boil off. There is no mechanical contact between the cryogenic part of the cryocooler and the sample cooling station. A bellows is used to isolate the vibration which could transfer from the cryocooler flange to the cryostat flange at the room temperature. Any vibrations generated by the operation of the cryocooler are almost entirely isolated from the cryogenic device. The cryostat provides a cooling capacity of 0.65 W at 4.21 K on the sample cooling station while maintaining a vapor pressure of 102 kPa. The sample cooling station has a very stable temperature with oscillations of less than ±3 mK during all the operations. A cryogenic microwave oscillator has been successfully cooled and operated with the cryostat.

Compact, ultra-low vibration, closed-cycle helium recycler for uninterrupted operation of MEG with SQUID magnetometers

Highlights•Compact noise-free, closed-cycle helium recycler was developed for MEG.•The recycler can liquefy helium after precooling the whole-head system.•It recycles helium for maintenance-free operation under computer control.•Vibration noise is below the system noise for continuous MEG operation.

Research PaperLysophosphatidic acid induces neuronal cell death via activation of asparagine endopeptidase in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

Highlights•We revealed a mechanism of ischemic neuronal injury.•For the first time, we showed that LPA activates AEP and promotes neuronal injury after stroke.•We are first proposed that inhibition of LPA can be a potential therapeutic measure after injury.

Full Length ArticlePyrolysis of coal hydroliquefaction residue in a dual loop reaction system

Highlights•A dual-loop system developed for pyrolysis of coal hydroliquefaction residue (CHR).•Continuous fluidized bed operation achieved using quartz sand as diluting agent.•Dust-free tar was produced from CHR at high yield under test conditions.

On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

Highlights•We study the scheduling problem of minimizing makespan on unrelated parallel machines in the restricted assignment model.•We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it has an integral optimal solution.•We also present a PTAS for the case that the Mj's are intervals of the same length.•We give a simple algorithm for the case that |Mj|=2 (graph balancing problem) with ratio 11/6.

Regular ArticleAll-round utilization of biomass derived all-solid-state asymmetric carbon-based supercapacitor

AbstractAll-round utilization of resources is proposed for maximizing environmental and economic benefits. Herein, the concept of all-round utilization on biomass derivations applying to carbon-based supercapacitors is demonstrated. Orange peel is used for all subassemblies of supercapacitor, including electrodes, separator and electrolyte. A monolithic porous carbon (OPHPC) is prepared by one-step carbonization of orange peel and another composite electrode is further synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process, based on sufficient utilization of natural structure and chemical components. OPHPC exhibits a high specific surface area of 860 m2 g−1 and naturally doped nitrogen. The composite electrode shows the homogeneous and high mass loading of MnO2. Orange peel also affords the role of separator benefited from the natural porous channel structure and high porosity of 74.6%. Orange peel juice is exploited to produce the electrolyte, and exhibits the best retention in natural separator. All-orange peel all-solid-state supercapacitor shows the high areal capacitance of 3987 mF cm−2. Furthermore, the flexibility of orange peel is also utilized to achieve the shape-tailored monolithic porous carbon electrode and device, which further extends the utilized dimensionality in biomass applying to supercapacitors. The work starts with all dimensional utilization for biomass derived supercapacitor.

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