In the past James G. Speight has collaborated on articles with Speros E. Moschopedis and J.Anne Koots. One of their most recent publications is Oxidation of bitumen in relation to its recovery from tar-sand formations☆. Which was published in journal Fuel.

More information about James G. Speight research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

James G. Speight's Articles: (71)

Oxidation of bitumen in relation to its recovery from tar-sand formations☆

AbstractSimple chemical reactions are described which bring about modification of the components of a bitumen. This is accomplished by using an oxygen-containing gas and subsequent treatment with alkali solutions of sulphites and/or bisulphites. The resulting water-soluble sulphonated bituminous derivatives have significant emulsifying and dispersing powers and are likely to be of use in extracting the bitumen in situ.

Relation of petroleum resins to asphaltenes☆

AbstractThe chemical and structural analyses of a series of petroleum resins are reported. The data allow feasible representation to be made of the chemical and physical structure of bitumen and crude oils.

Investigation of the carbonyl functions in a resin fraction from Athabasca bitumen

AbstractInfrared and chemical studies of the resin fraction isolated from Athabasca bitumen indicate that oxygen in these fractions exists predominantly as ester functions. Evidence for this was obtained from hydrolysis, acetylation and methylation reactions.

Investigation of asphaltene molecular weights

AbstractThe molecular weights of asphaltenes, as determined by vapour-pressure osmometry, vary considerably and are dependent upon the nature of the solvent as well as the temperature. The data are interpreted in terms of association (of the asphaltene units) in solvents of low dielectric constant and dissociation in solvents of high dielectric constant. Data derived by means of a viscometric method yield inconsistent values for asphaltene molecular weights, and recognition of these inconsistencies causes some revision of the theory of the physical structure of petroleums, bitumens and asphalts.

Introduction of oxygen functions into asphaltenes and resins☆

AbstractIntroduction of oxygen functions into bitumen fractions causes significant changes in the physical properties. The products possess the capability of reducing the surface tensions of aqueous systems. Derivatives containing the sulphonic group are more hydrophilic than those materials containing carboxylic and/or phenolic functions and appear to have superior dispersing and emulsifying properties.

Sulphoxidation of Athabasca bitumen☆

AbstractTreatment of Athabasca bitumen with sulphur dioxide proceeds mainly by oxidation, with sulphonation occurring to a lesser extent. The evidence indicates that when a bitumen is treated with oxygen, esters are the main products which must be hydrolysed in order to increase the emulsifying power of these materials. The use of sulphur dioxide also results in ester formation, but some formation of sulphonic and carboxylic functions may actually remove the necessity for a separate hydrolysis step to generate these emulsifying compounds that are presumed to be beneficial for in situ recovery of the bitumen.

Use of heavy oils (and derivatives) to process coal☆

AbstractOil sands bitumen from the Athabasca and Cold Lake deposits, Lloydminster heavy oil and various liquid derivatives from oil sands bitumen can be successfully employed to solubilize an Alberta high-volatile C bituminous coal. In the presence of hydrogen, the degree of coal solvation is increased; catalytic hydrogenation is even more effective and gives higher yields of soluble products.

Identification of nitrogen functional groups in Athabasca bitumen☆

AbstractReactions of resins, asphaltenes and model nitrogen compounds with acetic anhydride and with trifluoroacetic anhydride yield compounds which provide indications that the predominant nitrogen functional groups in resins and asphaltenes (from Athabasca bitumen) exist as imino groups of the carbazole-type. Evidence for this was obtained from infrared and F19 nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

Effects of process parameters on the liquefaction of coal using heavy oils and bitumens☆

AbstractThe effects of process parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure and time) on the upgrading of an Alberta high volatile carbon bituminous coal using heavy oil, bitumens (and derivatives) are reported. The data also show the optimum process conditions for the solvation and catalytic hydrogenation of the coal.

Chapter 2 - Origin and Occurrence

Most heavy oil is found at the margins of geologic basins and is thought to be the residue of formerly light oil that has lost its light-molecular-weight components through degradation by bacteria, water-washing, and evaporation. In addition, many heavy oil reservoirs have been found in Arctic regions and offshore beneath the continental shelves of Africa and North and South America. Heavy oil has also been discovered beneath the Caspian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Red Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Caribbean Sea, as well as beneath other bodies of water such as the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico.The purpose of this chapter is to present the occurrence and reserves of heavy oil and to indicate how tis can influence world oil supply and demand.

Chapter 3 - Properties and Evaluation

Heavy oil properties and evaluation are part of a screening process which begins with gathering as much reservoir data as possible (not the subject of this text) and as much data related to the properties of the heavy oil that are useful in developing a coherent package to compare with the screening criteria for various recovery methods. Thus, the methods developed to determine the properties of heavy oil described here are related to the methods used in oilfield-oriented laboratories to simplify the mixture in terms of a series of bulk properties and method-defined fractions.This chapter presents the main objectives for a successful analytical process and sample character and specific sampling issues are addressed in the form of a sample history that details the acquisition, storage, and test methods carried out on the sample.

Chapter 5 - Thermal Methods of Recovery

The successful recovery technique that is applied to one heavy oil reservoir is not necessarily the technique that will guarantee success for another reservoir. General applicability of the techniques is not guaranteed. Caution is advised when applying the knowledge gained from one resource to the issues of another resource. Although the principles may at first sight appear to be the same, the technology must be adaptable.This chapter presents the various methods that have been applied to heavy oil recovery with measurable degrees of success.

Chapter 1 - Origin of Shale Gas

Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale formations that typically function as both the reservoir and the source rocks for the natural gas. In terms of chemical makeup, shale gas is typically a dry gas composed primarily of methane (60–95% v/v), but some formations do produce wet gas. The Antrim and New Albany plays have typically produced water and gas. Gas shale formations are organic-rich shale formations that were previously regarded only as source rocks and seals for gas accumulating in the strata near sandstone and carbonate reservoirs of traditional onshore gas development.It is the purpose of this chapter to introduce the reader to the definitions and terminology used in the area of shale gas science and technology.

Chapter 2 - Chemistry of Gasification

The gasification of any carbonaceous or hydrocarbonaceous material is, essentially, the conversion of the carbon constituents by any one of a variety of chemical processes to produce combustible gases. The process includes a series of reaction steps that convert the feedstock into synthesis gas (syngas, carbon monoxide, CO, plus hydrogen, H2) and other gaseous products. This conversion is generally accomplished by introducing a gasifying agent (air, oxygen, and/or steam) into a reactor vessel containing the feedstock where the temperature, pressure, and flow pattern (moving bed, fluidized, or entrained bed) are controlled. The gaseous products – other than carbon monoxide and hydrogen – and the proportions of these product gases (such as carbon dioxide, CO2, methane, CH4, water vapor, H2O, hydrogen sulfide, H2S, and sulfur dioxide, SO2) depends on the: (1) type of feedstock, (2) the chemical composition of the feedstock, (3) the gasifying agent or gasifying medium, as well as (4) the thermodynamics and chemistry of the gasification reactions as controlled by the process operating parameters. In addition, the kinetic rates and extents of conversion for the several chemical reactions that are a part of the gasification process are variable and are typically functions of: (1) temperature, (2) pressure, and (3) reactor configuration, and (4) the gas composition of the product gases and whether or not these gases influence the outcome of the reaction.It is the purpose of this chapter to present descriptions of the various reactions involved in gasification of carbonaceous and hydrocarbonaceous feedstocks as well as the various thermodynamic aspects of these reactions which dictate the process parameters used to produce the various gases.

Chapter 3 - Gasifier Types

There are many successful commercial gasifiers, the basic form and concept for which are available but details on the design and operation for the commercial coal gasifiers are closely guarded as proprietary information. In fact, the production of gas from carbonaceous feedstocks has been an expanding area of technology. As a result, several types of gasification reactors have arisen and there has been a general tendency to classify gasification processes by virtue of the heat content of the gas which is produced.It is the purpose of this chapter to present the different categories of gasification reactors as they apply to various types of feedstocks. Within each category there are several commonly known processes, some of which are in current use and some of which are in lesser use.

Chapter 6 - The Future of Gasification

The projections for the continued use of fossil fuels indicate that there will be at least another five decades of fossil fuel use (especially coal and petroleum) before biomass and other forms of alternative energy take hold. Furthermore, estimations that the era of fossil fuels (petroleum, coal, and natural gas) will be almost over when the cumulative production of the fossil resources reaches 85% of their initial total reserves may or may not have some merit. In fact, the relative scarcity (compared to a few decades ago) of petroleum was real but it seems that the remaining reserves make it likely that there will be an adequate supply of energy for several decades. The environmental issues are very real and require serious and continuous attention.It is the purpose of this chapter to summarize major issues related to gasification technology and to relate how the continually evolving technology will play a role in future energy production.

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