In the past Robert Lickliter has collaborated on articles with Rebecca F. Columbus and Susan M. Schneider. One of their most recent publications is Premature visual experience facilitates visual responsiveness in bobwhite quail neonates. Which was published in journal Infant Behavior and Development.

More information about Robert Lickliter research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Robert Lickliter's Articles: (5)

Premature visual experience facilitates visual responsiveness in bobwhite quail neonates

AbstractExposing precocial avian neonates to premature (prenatal) visual experience appears to accelerate postnatal intersensory functioning. For example, bobwhite quail chicks who received patterned visual stimulation as embryos require auditory and visual cues to direct their filial behavior earlier in postnatal development than do normally reared chicks. The mechanism(s) for this alteration in perceptual organization has, however, not been investigated. The present study examined whether accelerated postnatal intersensory functioning is the result of reduced species-specific auditory responsiveness and/or enhanced postnatal visual responsiveness. Results revealed that bobwhite quail embryos exposed to unusually early visual stimulation do not show reduced auditory responsiveness in the period immediately following hatching but do exhibit an accelerated pattern of species-typical visual functioning. Specifically, chicks who experienced patterned light during the last 24 to 36 hours prior to hatching were able to use visual cues to direct their species-specific social preferences earlier in postnatal development than were control chicks. This finding suggests that one result of unusually early visual stimulation is that subsequent behavior is organized to include the earlier-than-normal sensory information.

Prenatal visual experience alters postnatal sensory dominance hierarchy in bobwhite quail chicks☆

AbstractWork with a variety of precocial animal infants has demonstrated a hierarchy in the functional priority of the auditory and visual systems in the period following birth or hatching with infants initially utilizing auditory rather than visual cues to direct their early perceptual and social preferences. This experiment utilized bobwhite quail embryos and hatchlings to examine whether this pattern of early sensory dominance is influenced by the nature of prenatal sensory experience. Results revealed that bobwhite quail chicks that received unusually early (prenatal) visual experience demonstrate an altered pattern of postnatal sensory dominance but only under specific conditions. Whereas these chicks continued to prefer maternal auditory cues over visual cues when the maternal visual cues provided were motionless, chicks that received prenatal visual experience preferred maternal visual cues over auditory cues by 96 hours of postnatal age when the visual cues provided were kinetic. These results emphasize the importance of considering both extra- and intraorganismic variables when characterizing the nature of early perceptual organization.

Unimodal sensory experience interferes with responsiveness to the spatial contiguity of multimodal maternal cues in bobwhite quail chicks

AbstractThis study manipulated the relationship between maternal auditory and visual stimulation to examine how bobwhite quail chick's postnatal sensory experience influences the emergence of early intersensory integration. Results revealed that chicks reared with temporally integrated, temporally sequential, or temporally separated maternal audio-visual cues subsequently preferred spatially congruent maternal auditory and visual cues over spatially disparate maternal cues, suggesting that the temporal relationship of maternal multimodal stimulation is not critical to chicks' emerging sensitivity to spatial contiguity. In contrast, chicks reared with unimodal maternal auditory cues or maternal visual cues following hatching did not prefer spatially congruent maternal auditory and visual cues over spatially disparate maternal stimulation. These results indicate that bobwhite chicks require postnatal exposure to multimodal (auditory and visual) stimulation to exhibit species-typical responsiveness to the spatial colocation of multimodal maternal stimuli. Experience with unimodal maternal stimulation (only auditory or visual) was not sufficent to foster chicks' sensitivity to spatial colocation in the days following hatching. Developmental processes involving both auditory and visual experience appear to underlie the emergence of early intersensory integration.

Operant generalization in quail neonates after intradimensional training: Distinguishing positive and negative reinforcement

AbstractOperant generalization has been demonstrated in neonates only recently. To investigate the development of intradimensional stimulus control immediately after hatching, northern bobwhite chicks (Colinus virginianus) pecked for brief heat presentations while hearing a high-pitched sound repeated at two constant rates: an S+ tempo signaling a rich reinforcement schedule, alternating with an S− tempo signaling a leaner schedule. Tempo generalization was then assessed in extinction. The expected excitatory gradients were produced after a threshold number of training sessions; unexpectedly, below that threshold, gradients were inhibitory. The chicks’ rapidly developing thermoregulatory capability may have resulted in a change from perceived negative reinforcement initially to positive reinforcement later. Given past research showing excitatory gradients after negative reinforcement, we suggest that these results demonstrate that all negative reinforcement is not equivalent, and, further, that classical conditioning effects require consideration.

ReviewThe growth of developmental thought: Implications for a new evolutionary psychology

AbstractEvolution has come to be increasingly discussed in terms of changes in developmental processes rather than simply in terms of changes in gene frequencies. This shift is based in large part on the recognition that since all phenotypic traits arise during ontogeny as products of individual development, a primary basis for evolutionary change must be variations in the patterns and processes of development. Further, the products of development are epigenetic, not just genetic, and this is the case even when considering the evolutionary process. These insights have led investigators to reconsider the established notion of genes as the primary cause of development, opening the door to research programs focused on identifying how genetic and non-genetic factors coact to guide and constrain the process of development and its outcomes. I explore this growth of developmental thought and its implications for the achievement of a unified theory of heredity, development, and evolution and consider its implications for the realization of a new, developmentally based evolutionary psychology.

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