Biography:

In the past Chiara De Panfilis has collaborated on articles with Carlo Marchesi and Matteo Tonna. One of their most recent publications is The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood. Which was published in journal Comprehensive Psychiatry.

More information about Chiara De Panfilis research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Chiara De Panfilis's Articles: (9)

The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood

AbstractThis study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.

The role of alexithymia in predicting incident depression in patients at first acute coronary syndrome

AbstractObjectiveAlexithymia has been considered both to predispose to depression and to worsen cardiac prognosis after an acute coronary syndrome. Nonetheless, no studies have evaluated its role as a risk factor for incident depression, in patients with acute coronary syndrome.MethodsIn 251 consecutive patients, the presence of a first-ever depressive episode was evaluated with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months after their first acute coronary syndrome. At baseline, patients completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.ResultsOut of 251 subjects (80.9% males), a first-ever depressive episode was diagnosed in 66 patients. Depressed and never-depressed patients differed in female gender, living status, alexithymic scores at TAS-20 and depressive symptoms. Nonetheless, nor the TAS-20 factors nor its total score were predictive of developing a depressive episode in a Cox regression. Moreover, baseline differences in TAS-20 scores between the two groups, disappeared after controlling for anhedonic symptoms.ConclusionOur results do not support the hypothesis that alexithymia at TAS-20 is a risk factor for incident depression after acute coronary syndrome.

Preliminary communicationMood-congruent and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in major depression: The role of severity and personality

AbstractBackgroundWhether psychotic symptoms in major depression (MD) are better explained by a “severity model” or by a “vulnerability model”, with personality as a predisposing factor, is still debated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in MD the relationship between the content of psychotic features (mood congruent (MC) or mood incongruent (MI)) and severity of depression or personality traits.Methods62 inpatients affected by MD with psychotic features were divided into three groups on the basis of the content of psychotic symptoms: MC, MI, mixed MC–MI. All subjects completed the SCID-IV, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Personality was assessed after MD remission.ResultsMI psychotic symptoms were positively associated with schizotypal traits, whereas MC symptoms were positively related to obsessive-compulsive traits and severity of depression. Patients with both MC and MI psychotic symptoms were characterized by a personality profile and depression severity standing in a middle position between the MC and MI groups.LimitationsThe main limitations of the study are represented by the small sample size, the time of assessment of personality and the inclusion of only unipolar depression.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that both depression severity and personality profile, independently from each other, model the content of psychotic symptoms, confirming the validity of subgrouping psychotic depression into two distinct MC and MI types and supporting the inclusion of a third mixed MC–MI type because of its intermediate position in personality profile and severity between the MC or MI group.

Effect of pharmacological treatment on temperament and character in panic disorder

AbstractTemperament and character were evaluated in patients with panic disorder (PD) before and after 1 year of pharmacological therapy to verify whether personality characteristics change after treatment. Therefore, 65 PD patients and 71 healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects were evaluated with the SCID-IV, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the SCL-90, the Ham-A and the Ham-D. Patients were treated with paroxetine or citalopram. The TCI was re-administered to the patients at the end of the study. At the end of the study, complete remission was achieved by 31 patients (R), whereas symptoms did not disappear in the remaining 34 patients (NR). Before treatment, NR patients showed higher levels of harm avoidance (HA) and lower levels of persistence (P), self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) than healthy controls. Only HA levels were higher than normal in R, although they were significantly lower in R than in NR patients. These differences persisted after treatment. However, in NR patients the levels of SD and C worsened, whereas the difference between R patients and controls in HA levels (higher in R patients than in controls) disappeared after controlling the effect of residual phobic anxiety (higher than normal in R patients). Our data suggest that the high levels of HA found after remission may depend on the subsyndromal residual phobic symptoms, observed in R patients. Moreover, the persistence of anxious symptoms may have worsened the low levels of SD and C observed before treatment in patients who did not achieve remission.

The effect of severity and personality on the psychotic presentation of major depression

AbstractThe aim of the present study was to evaluate whether symptom severity or personality traits are associated with psychotic symptoms in major depression (MD), since it is still debated whether psychotic depression represents the most severe form of depression or the effect of personality structure. The study included 163 patients affected by MD who were divided into four groups on the basis of the presence/absence of melancholic features and psychotic symptoms. All subjects completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-IV), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). Personality was assessed after MD remission (absence of DSM-IV criteria and Ham-D score lower than 7 for at least 2 months). Psychotic symptoms were positively associated with symptom severity (higher Ham-D total score) and with paranoid and schizotypal traits and negatively related to histrionic traits. Our data support the view that the effect of paranoid-schizotypal traits and symptom severity on the presence of psychotic symptoms in MD occurs separately and they are independent of each other.

The impact of obsessive dimension on symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia

Highlights•To examine the effect of OC dimension on symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia.•OC dimension appears to be independent from other schizophrenia symptom dimensions.•OC dimension impairs functioning independently from other dimensions.•OC dimension has a relevant prognostic value on functioning in schizophrenia.

Research reportParsing the intrinsic networks underlying attention: A resting state study

Highlights•We tested the efficiency of attentional networks.•We estimated resting state networks.•Attentional efficiency in distinct networks correlates with resting state networks.•The brain owns intrinsic functional organization to support attentional components.

Rejection sensitivity and interpersonal behavior in daily life

Highlights•Rejection sensitivity (RS) fosters a self-perpetuating cycle of relational problems.•However, few studies evaluate longitudinal patterns of functioning in high RS.•Participants completed a 7-day event-contingent experience sampling study.•Those with high RS disconnect when perceiving low, negative affect in others.•This stance aims to avoid but likely invites the very rejection those with RS fear.

Integrated health articleTemperament and one-year outcome of gastric bypass for severe obesity

AbstractBackgroundThe role of temperament traits in shaping the outcome of gastric bypass for severe obesity has not been established yet. This study evaluated whether temperament traits influence weight loss 1 year after gastric bypass, controlling for the potential confounding effect of Axis I and II disorders.MethodsForty-nine patients with severe obesity (body mass index = 46.4±6.7) undergoing gastric bypass completed a thorough psychiatric evaluation before surgery, including structured interviews, rating scales, and questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of co-morbid Axis I and II disorders. Temperament was evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Weight loss 1 year after surgery was calculated as percent total weight loss (%TWL). Predictors of weight loss were investigated with multivariate linear hierarchical regression.ResultsAfter accounting for psychiatric covariates, higher TCI persistence scores independently predicted 1-year outcome of gastric bypass and explained 40% of the variance in %TWL. Patients with low persistence scores showed a significantly lesser weight loss than patients with high scores.ConclusionTemperament traits denoting the ability to persevere in one’s goals in spite of immediate frustration (persistence) are associated with greater weight loss 1 year after gastric bypass. These data suggest the utility of preoperatively assessing and reinforcing such capacity to optimize surgical outcome. Future research will clarify the behavioral mechanisms mediating this relationship as well as the influence of temperament on weight maintenance.

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