Biography:

In the past Werner Lutzenberger has collaborated on articles with Thomas Elbert and Brigitte Rockstroh. One of their most recent publications is Physical aspects of the EEG in schizophrenics☆. Which was published in journal Biological Psychiatry.

More information about Werner Lutzenberger research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Werner Lutzenberger's Articles: (17)

Physical aspects of the EEG in schizophrenics☆

AbstractPhysical and dynamic aspects of the electroencephalogram (EEG) were evaluated in 12 schizophrenic patients and 12 matched healthy control subjects by means of two descriptive measures proposed by Hjorth (complexity and mobility) and by a nonlinear measure, dimensional complexity. These measures were compared to power spectra analyses. EEG was recorded from frontal, central, and parietal leads under resting conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) for 12 epochs each of 25 sec. Patients showed the expected increased activity in the 1–7 Hz band and, furthermore, a scalp distribution of dimensional complexity and Hjorth complexity opposite to the distribution in controls: in patients dimensional complexity yielded higher values at frontal (Fz) than central (Cz) leads, whereas the resemblance to sinusoidal waveshape (Hjorth complexity) was larger at Fz than Cz. Results indicate more dynamic complexity or variables determining the dynamics of brain processes in frontal areas in patients.

Physical aspects of the EEG in schizophrenics☆

AbstractPhysical and dynamic aspects of the electroencephalogram (EEG) were evaluated in 12 schizophrenic patients and 12 matched healthy control subjects by means of two descriptive measures proposed by Hjorth (complexity and mobility) and by a nonlinear measure, dimensional complexity. These measures were compared to power spectra analyses. EEG was recorded from frontal, central, and parietal leads under resting conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) for 12 epochs each of 25 sec. Patients showed the expected increased activity in the 1–7 Hz band and, furthermore, a scalp distribution of dimensional complexity and Hjorth complexity opposite to the distribution in controls: in patients dimensional complexity yielded higher values at frontal (Fz) than central (Cz) leads, whereas the resemblance to sinusoidal waveshape (Hjorth complexity) was larger at Fz than Cz. Results indicate more dynamic complexity or variables determining the dynamics of brain processes in frontal areas in patients.

Main articleEffects of the anticonvulsant benzodiazepine clonazepam on event-related brain potentials in humans☆

AbstractThe effects of the benzodiazepine clonazepam (a drug used as anticonvulsant) on event-related brain potentials ewere investigated in healthy human subjects. Thirty-six male student volunteers (mean age 30 years) received clonazepam or a placebo in a double-blind setting. VEPs (visual evoked potentials) were obtained from the standard checkerboard reversal procedure; AEPs (auditory evoked potentials) and slow cortical potentials (CNV) were measured during a 2-stimulus reaction time paradigm, in which the quality of the acoustic S1 signalled whether the acoustic S2 would follow after 2 sec or afer 6 sec. Each S2 requested a speeded button press.Compared to placebo, clonazepam significantly reduced P100 amplitude of the VEP and the amplitudes of the AEP components N1 and P3. On the other hand, clonazepam boosted the development of a distinct N2 which was not apparent in placebo subjects. The CNV was significantly reduced and reaction time increased under clonazepam compared to placebo. Specific versus non-specific damping effects of the benzodiazepine are discussed, comparing the present result with the pattern of ERP effects of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine that had been obtained using the same experimental paradigms.

Main articleHigh-frequency cortical responses reflect lexical processing: an MEG study

AbstractMeaningful words and matched pseudowords, such as moon vs. noom, are of equal perceptual complexity, but invoke different cognitive processes. To investigate high-frequency cortical responses to these stimuli, biomagnetic signals were recorded simultaneously over both hemispheres of right-handed individuals listening to words and pseudowords. Consistent with earlier EEG studies, evoked spectral responses recorded from the left hemisphere revealed depression of spectral power in the low gamma band (around 30 Hz) after pseudowords but not after words. Similar differences between stimulus categories were present in the beta range. These results indicate that distinct patterns of high-frequency cortical responses correspond to the different cognitive processes invoked by words and pseudowords. It is hypothesized that differential high-frequency cortical responses signal the activation or activation failure of distributed Hebbian cell assemblies representing words and other elements of cognitive processing.

Asymmetry of brain potentials related to sensorimotor tasks

AbstractThe present study investigates the hemispheric specificity of event-related (ERP) and slow potentials (SP) of the brain during preparation and performance of sensorimotor (haptic) tasks. Tasks were selected which have been assumed to be processed primarily by only one brain hemisphere. ERPs, SPs and spontaneous EEGs were obtained from both hemispheres (C3–C4, P3–P4) and from Fz and Cz in a constant foreperiod (6 s) paradigm. Warning and task stimuli comprised up to four tactile stimuli, applied to index and middle finger of each hand. To maximize lateralized processing, the right-hand task required counting, the left hand task pattern matching. Components of the ERP (N1, P3, SW) and of SPs show task-dependent lateral asymmetry with the larger amplitudes contralateral to the preparing and responding hand. Results confirm hemisphere-specific processing of the tactile tasks but quantification as indicated by ERP amplitudes show considerable activity in both hemispheres. The SP-distribution rather reflects task-specific preparation than general alertness or orienting.

Biofeedback-produced hemispheric asymmetry of slow cortical potentials and its behavioural effects

AbstractTwo studies served to examine behavioural effects of slow cortical potentials (SPs). SPs were manipulated by means of a biofeedback procedure. The ability of human subjects to alter SPs differentially between the two hemispheres - specifically over the lateral aspects of teh central sulcus - was tested by providing feedback ofthe SP difference betwrrn C3 and C4. In Expt. I, 21 of the 45 subjects produced hemispheric asymmetries of more than 2 μV between C3 and C4 on an average after 80 trials of analogue, continuous and immediate feedback. In Expt. II, SP changes were fed back digitally at the end of each trial. Within 120 trials, 20 of the 48 subjects reached the criterion of a minimum 2-μV difference in SPs between C3 and C4 on the average. Average differentiation remained significantly below the SP differentiations achieved for continuous feedback. Trials with feedback were followed by ‘task’ trials without feedback, during which subjects were still requested to produce SP changes but also had to complete a task: Either sensorimotor tasks (Expt. I) or forced choice handedness tasks (Expt. II) were presented to evaluate behavioural consequences of hemispheric SP differences. In subjects achieving the required SP differentiation it affected the behavioural output in agreement with the known functions of the respective cortical area.

Mapping P300 waves onto inhibition: Go/NoGo discrimination☆

AbstractSubjects viewed letters presented at 2 sec intervals and prepared a fast button press whenever an “O” appeared. If the next letter was an “X” the button press was executed (Go signal), but if the letter was a non-X character (T, H, Z) suppression of the response was required (NoGo cue). NoGo signals elicited a P300-like wave that was larger at central and frontal scalp sites contralateral to the prepared movement, compared to P300s elicited by Go cues which were symmetric about the sagittal midline and dominant at parietal sites. Subtraction of preparatory CNVs from the NoGo P300 did not remove differences in scalp topography, or reduce the amplitude of the NoGo P300 to that seen following control letters that required perceptual identification but did not call for suppression of prepared motor responses. Principal components analysis identified a middle positive wave following X-alone control stimuli whose topography resembled the NoGo P300. These findings suggest that the source of augmented NoGo P300s is a generator involved with sensorimotor inhibition. We discuss the mechanism of P300 waves and evidence linking these waves with inhibition in other task arrangements.

Principal component analysis of slow brain potentials during six second anticipation intervals

AbstractThe comparison of principal component analyses between seven experimental studies demonstrates a remarkable similarity of the extracted components. Slow scalp-recorded potentials of the brain (SPs) during a constant 6 sec foreperiod can be described by an early frontal, and a late preparatory component. Furthermore, an additional intermediate component may be retained by the PCA. This component seems to reduce the between-subject variance and often describes processes dependent on stimulus repetition. There is evidence favoring the varimaxed solution of the PCA for the parametrization of most of the experimental data.

Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance

AbstractTwenty subjects learned to control slow potential (SP) shifts of the brain by means of a biofeedback procedure. Depending upon the pitch of a signal tone, negative SP shifts had to be increased or reduced during intervals of 6 sec each. Visual feedback of the actual SP shift was given. Blocks of training trials alternated with blocks of test trials without any feedback of the SPs. At the end of every test trial a simple arithmetic problem had to be solved by the subjects. Subjects performed the computation in a shorter time interval if an increased negativity preceded task onset as compared to slower response times during suppression of negativity. Results suggest that cortical negativity reflects unspecific preparation for cerebral performance.

Do schizophrenics not differentiate between perception and imagination? an EEG study using dimensional analysis

AbstractThe electroencephalograms (EEGs) of 18 chronic schizophrenic patients and 16 controls were compared during three experimental conditions: simple mental arithmetic, the perception of a moving double pendulum, and the imagination of it. An elevated dimensional complexity of the EEG of schizophrenic patients during perception as compared to normals and a failure to increase dimensional complexity during mental imagery was found. No differences were found during mental arithmetic. It is concluded that the brains of schizophrenics operate during perception in a functional state that is characterised by increased and apparently unnecessary complexity.

Simultaneous recording of slow brain potentials and transcranial magnetic stimulation of hand area in human motor cortex

AbstractRecording of slow brain potentials (SPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) of the human motor cortex were combined to probe the relationship between SP level and excitability of cortical neurons. In experiment 1, TCMS was applied during and shortly after the warning interval in a forewarned reaction time task. Electromyographic (EMG) responses to TCMS increased only slightly during the warning interval and were significantly elevated 150 ms after the imperative stimulus. In experiment 2, TCMS was applied during biofeedback-induced cortical positivity and negativity. In this non-motor task a dependence of TCMS response on SP amplitude was not significant. Results indicate higher local excitability of motor cortex during cortical negativity when a preparatory motor task in required. TCMS may better be suited to probe processes involved in motor tasks rather than non-motor and cognitive conditions.

Hemispheric lateralization of the processing of consonant-vowel syllables (formant transitions): effects of stimulus characteristics and attentional demands on evoked magnetic fields

AbstractIt is still unsettled in how far temporal resolution of dynamic acoustic events (formant transitions) or phonetic/linguistic processes contribute to predominant left-hemisphere encoding of consonant-vowel syllables. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, evoked magnetic fields in response to consonant-vowel events (synthetic versus spoken) were recorded (oddball design: standards=binaural/ba/, deviants=dichotic/ba/-/da/; 20 right-handed subjects) under different attentional conditions (visual distraction versus stimulus identification). Spoken events yielded a left-lateralized peak phase of the mismatch field (MMF; 150–200 ms post-stimulus onset) in response to right-ear deviants during distraction. By contrast, pre-attentive processing of synthetic items gave rise to a left-enhanced MMF onset (100 ms), but failed to elicit later lateralization effects. In case of directed attention, synthetic deviants elicited a left-pronounced MMF peak resembling the pre-attentive response to natural syllables. These interactions of MMF asymmetry with signal structure and attentional load indicate two distinct successive left-lateralization effects: signal-related operations and representation of ‘phonetic traces’. Furthermore, a right-lateralized early MMF component (100 ms) emerged in response to natural syllables during pre-attentive processing and to synthetic stimuli in case of directed attention. Conceivably, these effects indicate right hemisphere operations prior to phonetic evaluation such as periodicity representation. Two distinct time windows showed correlations between dichotic listening performance and ear effects on magnetic responses reflecting early gain factors (ca. 75 ms post-stimulus onset) and binaural fusion strategies (ca. 200 ms), respectively. Finally, gender interacted with MMF lateralization, indicating different processing strategies in case of artificial speech signals.

Statistical probability mapping reveals high-frequency magnetoencephalographic activity in supplementary motor area during self-paced finger movements

AbstractInvestigations of both haemodynamic and electroencephalographic measures of brain activity have demonstrated supplementary motor area (SMA) involvement in self-paced finger movements. In contrast, analysis of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals in the time domain has usually failed to detect SMA activity in healthy individuals. We investigated oscillatory MEG activity in 12 normal adults during (a) a self-paced, complex sequence of finger movements and (b) a simple finger opposition task paced externally by tactile stimuli presented to the contralateral thumb. Statistical probability mapping revealed enhanced non-phase-locked spectral amplitudes in the 22–28 Hz range over bilateral frontal cortex during self-paced as compared to externally cued finger movements. This activity may reflect recruitment of cell assemblies in SMA during self-paced, complex movements.

Location changes enhance hemispheric asymmetry of magnetic fields evoked by lateralized sounds in humans

AbstractAuditory mismatch negativity, the brain's change-detection response, has been shown to be more sensitive than other early auditory cortex responses to the hemispheric specialization of speech processing. The present study used magnetoencephalography to assess hemispheric differences in cortical evoked responses during auditory spatial processing. We compared N1m to lateralized vowels presented with equal probabilities with mismatch fields (MMNm) to rare lateralized noises interspersed in a sequence of frequent midline sounds. Both N1m and MMNm dipole amplitudes were higher in the hemisphere contralaterally to the side of sound lateralization, but this effect was about four times bigger in the mismatch paradigm. Moreover, only MMNm dipoles showed shorter latencies in the hemisphere contralaterally to stimulation. Apparently stimulus changes activate specialized auditory networks more strongly than non-deviant events.

The influence of critical bands on neuromagnetic fields evoked by speech stimuli in humans

AbstractThe various classes of speech sounds differ in their configuration of acoustic features. Vowels are characterized by specific local maxima of spectral energy distribution (formants). Using whole-head magnetoencephalography, the impact of variation of the first (F1) and second formant (F2) on the evoked N1m component (100 ms latency) was studied based on an oddball design. F1 changes yielded N1m enhancements in parallel to the spectral distance between standard and deviant stimuli. By contrast, F2 shifts gave rise to a non-linear relationship: the N1m effect flattened out above a range of two Barks. This frequency domain accords to critical band characteristics of the peripheral and central auditory system. The differences of early neuronal encoding of both formants relate to the predominant role of F2 for the encoding of stop consonants.

The involvement of ipsilateral temporoparietal cortex in tactile pattern working memory as reflected in beta event-related desynchronization

AbstractCortical oscillatory activity in various frequency bands has been shown to reflect working memory processes operating on visual and auditory stimulus information. Here we use magnetoencephalography to investigate cortical oscillatory activity related to working memory for tactile patterns. Right-handed subjects made same–different judgements on two dot patterns sequentially applied with a 3-s delay to the right middle fingertip. Spectral analysis revealed beta desynchronization (17 ± 2.5 Hz) at contralateral postcentral and ipsilateral temporoparietal regions preceding and during the presentation of both tactile stimuli as well as during the early and late delay periods. Whereas contralateral beta desynchronization preceding tactile stimulation may reflect anticipation of incoming stimuli, ipsilateral beta desynchronization may underlie working memory maintenance of tactile patterns. The later hypothesis is supported by a significant positive correlation between subjects' performance and the amplitude of ipsilateral beta desynchronization 800 ms to 500 ms before the onset of the second pattern stimulus. Thus, our results suggest that ipsilateral temporoparietal cortex contributes to the maintenance of tactile pattern information in working memory.

Improvement of microcirculation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the lower limb with Prostaglandin E1

AbstractObjectiveThe aim of the study was to investigate prospectively the microcirculation after angioplasty and its improvement with additional Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) therapy assessed by transcutaneous pressure of oxygen.Patients and methods45 patients with intermittent claudication eligible for angioplasty were enrolled in a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial. Patients received either intra-arterial bolus of 40 μg PGE1 in addition to angioplasty or a 40 μg PGE1 intravenous infusion. Control group received no trial medication. Additional 15 patients undergoing intra-arterial angiography were also investigated. tcpO2 values were recorded distal to the PTA region before, during the intervention, 24 h, 2 and 4 weeks after intervention. Clinical endpoint was the change of tcpO2 values 4 weeks after intervention.ResultsDuring the 4 week follow-up tcpO2 values decreased in patients treated with angioplasty. At the same time tcpO2 increased significantly in those patients additionally treated with intra-arterial PGE1 bolus injection as well as with intravenous PGE1 infusion.ConclusionsImpaired microcirculation after angioplasty can be improved with additional intravenous as well as intra-arterial PGE1 administration.

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