Biography:

In the past David F Bjorklund has collaborated on articles with Jane F Gaultney. One of their most recent publications is Negative transfer in children's recall of categorized materials☆. Which was published in journal Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

More information about David F Bjorklund research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

David F Bjorklund's Articles: (6)

Negative transfer in children's recall of categorized materials☆

AbstractA negative transfer paradigm was used to assess kindergarten, third-, and sixth-grade (approximately 5, 9, and 12 years old) children's use of category relations in lists presented for recall. Negative transfer effects increased with age, with kindergarten children showing no evidence of interference relative to a control group.

Age differences in the temporal locus of memory organization in children's recall☆

AbstractAge differences in when (i.e., at input or output) children organize information for recall were investigated in terms of a model specifying that information organized at input is more resistant to forgetting over time than information not organized at input. In Experiment 1, recall of items from categorically related and unrelated lists was assessed either immediately or after a 4-min delay. For 9-year-olds, the effect of delay was comparable for the related and unrelated lists, indicative of spontaneous organization at time of output. In contrast, 13-year-olds showed a significantly smaller delay effect with related than with unrelated lists, indicative of spontaneous organization at time of input. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that, for 9-year-olds, high levels of clustering in and of themselves do not eliminate effects of delayed testing characteristic of output organization, and that when 9-year-olds are biased to organize information at input, delay effects are reduced only when measures are taken to ensure that all the category labels are retrieved.

Acquiring a mnemonic: Age and category knowledge effects

AbstractFourth- and seventh-grade children received four free-recall trials on lists comprising typical and atypical items derived either from their own typicality ratings (self-generated lists) or the ratings of adults (adult generated). Levels of recall and clustering increased with age, were greater for typical than atypical items, with list effects (self- vs adult generated) being limited to atypical items. Subjects were classified as using an organizational strategy, separately for the typical and atypical items, based on the combined criteria of (a) at least one long intracategory cluster, and (b) faster within-category than between-category interitem latencies. The percentage of subjects classified as strategic was greater for the older children and typical items and increased over trials. By Trial 4, all seventh-graders were classified as strategic for either typical or atypical items, with 74% of fourth-graders so classified. Further analyses indicated that strategies were limited to a few categories on the early trials for both age groups, but generalized to most list categories on the later trials for the seventh-graders only. The results were interpreted in terms of the role that knowledge base and age differences in processing efficiency play in the development of memory strategies.

The role of children's expertise in a strategic memory task☆

AbstractIn a study intended to replicate and extend the findings from a recent experiment by Schneider and Bjorklund (1992), the expert/novice paradigm was used with second- and fourth-grade children in a sort/recall task. Children were classified as experts or novices for their knowledge of baseball, then given two sort/recall tasks, with a list consisting of either baseball or nonbaseball terms. Experts recalled more than novices on the baseball list only. While both groups used organizational strategies at sorting on the nonbaseball list, experts were marginally more strategic than novices on the baseball list, and no differences were found between the groups on either list for clustering. Baseball experts used more adultlike categories, suggesting that their enhanced levels of recall were attributed in part to strategy use, although there was also evidence that most of the substantial recall difference between the groups was attributed to item-specific effects associated with a more elaborated knowledge base. A second experiment using fifth-grade children on a multitrial sort/recall task using the baseball list also found increased recall by experts, and also found evidence of strategic behavior at the sort phase for trials 3 and 4.

The role of IQ, expertise, and motivation in the recall of familiar information☆☆☆

AbstractHigh- and low-IQ children in the first, third, and fifth grades performed two free-recall tasks: a sort-recall task with sets of categorically related pictures, and a class-recall task, with children recalling the current members of their school class. All children were deemed to be experts concerning the composition of their school class, but, unlike experts in other domains, had no special motivation associated with their expertise. Recall and clustering on both tasks were high. The high-IQ children performed better than low-IQ children only on the sort-recall task. IQ was significantly correlated with measures of performance on the sort-recall task but not on the class-recall task. The results reflect the fact that the memory benefits associated with being an expert (here, elimination of IQ effects) are related to the greater knowledge the expert possesses and not to factors of motivation.

The evolved child: Applying evolutionary developmental psychology to modern schooling

AbstractEvolutionary developmental psychology, an emerging subdiscipline of evolutionary approaches to human behavior and cognition, focuses on the adaptive nature of psychological mechanisms built into the brains of juveniles, some of which may serve immediate demands at different stages of development, and some of which serve preparatory roles for maturity. The current article reviews some of the central ideas of evolutionary developmental psychology and investigates how human educability, which is qualitatively different from the learning capacity of other species, is governed by specific adaptations of Homo sapiens' childhood that serve to orient the young child to his or her cultural environment. Evolutionary developmental psychology, we argue, can be especially informative to educational policy makers who wish to take children's natural limitations, as well as their intellectual pliability, into account when planning curricula.

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