Biography:

In the past C.L. Kirkland has collaborated on articles with R.H. Smithies and D.R. Mole. One of their most recent publications is Discriminating prolonged, episodic or disturbed monazite age spectra: An example from the Kalak Nappe Complex, Arctic Norway. Which was published in journal Chemical Geology.

More information about C.L. Kirkland research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

C.L. Kirkland's Articles: (15)

Discriminating prolonged, episodic or disturbed monazite age spectra: An example from the Kalak Nappe Complex, Arctic Norway

Highlights•Analysis of apparent 300 Ma spread of concordant monazite U–Pb data•EBSD and Raman imaging reveal well-ordered crystal structure and lack of microstructures.•Apparent age spread not due to diffusion (thermal, metamict state, or fast pathway) processes•Age correlation with chemistry: implies growth during prograde metamorphism.•Age spread related to fluid-mediated element mass transfer driven by coupled substitution.

Syn-volcanic cannibalisation of juvenile felsic crust: Superimposed giant 18O-depleted rhyolite systems in the hot and thinned crust of Mesoproterozoic central Australia

Highlights•>22000km3 of 18O-depleted rhyolite in Mesoproterozoic central Australia.•Independent ‘piggyback’ supervolcano sequences over a period of >30 Ma.•Rapidly reprocessed juvenile felsic material – significant crustal growth.•Thermal anomaly related to earlier tectonic history and not a deep mantle plume.•Need voluminous bimodal A-type magmas in the upper crust of attenuated lithosphere.

Time-space evolution of an Archean craton: A Hf-isotope window into continent formation

Highlights•Large-scale analysis of whole-craton formation, development and evolution from 4460–4000 to 2600 Ma;•U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon data reveal Hadean-Eoarchean origin of the Yilgarn Craton;•U-Pb, Lu-Hf and geological data demonstrate long-lived shared tectono-thermal history of all terranes;•Correlation of crustal growth and komatiite events suggest plume-lid tectonics as the dominant tectonic driver;•A combination of infra-crustal reworking and ‘drip’ tectonics best explain the origin and evolution of the Yilgarn Craton.

Heterogeneously hydrated mantle beneath the late Archean Yilgarn Craton

Highlights•The oldest demonstrated hydrous magma is identified at the 2800 Ma Narndee Igneous Complex.•A dramatic shift from anhydrous to hydrous mantle sources occurs over 13 Myr.•Inferred heterogeneously hydrated sub-continental lithosphere tapped by successive plume activity

Apatite: a U-Pb thermochronometer or geochronometer?

Highlights•Present U-Pb apatite geochronology from the Akia Terrane Greenland•Apatites from the same sample may incorporate different common Pb.•Chemical and age zoning in apatite need not correlate•Dissolution and regrowth forming high U rims is prevalent.•Recrystallization may dominate over Pb diffusion in apatite.

The Finnmarkian Orogeny revisited: An isotopic investigation in eastern Finnmark, Arctic Norway

AbstractThe Scandinavian Caledonides have been viewed as resulting from either a single Silurian (i.e. Scandian) event or from polycyclic orogenies involving several collisions on the margin of Baltica. Early studies of the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC) in Finnmark, Arctic Norway, led to the hypothesis of an Early Cambrian-Early Ordovician (520-480 Ma) Finnmarkian Orogeny, though the nature of this tectonic event remains enigmatic. In this contribution we have employed in situ UV laser ablation Ar-Ar dating of fine-grained phyllite and schist from the eastern Caledonides of Arctic Norway to investigate the presence of pre-Scandian tectonometamorphic events. U-Th-Pb detrital zircon and whole rock Sm-Nd analyses have been used to test the regional stratigraphic correlations of these metasedimentary rocks. These results indicate that the Berlevåg Formation within the Tanafjord Nappe, previously assumed to be part of the KNC, was deposited after 1872 Ma and prior to a low temperature hydrothermal event at 555 ± 15 Ma. It has a likely provenance on the Baltica continent, lacks any Grenville-Sveconorwegian detrital zircons, and thus cannot be part of the KNC which contains abundant detritus in this age range. Instead the Berlevåg Formation is interpreted as part of the Laksefjord Nappe Complex, which structurally underlies the KNC. Laser-ablation argon-argon dating also shows that late Caledonian (i.e. Scandian) tectonometamorphism affected both the KNC and its immediate footwall at c. 425 ± 15 Ma. This is corroborated by a step-heating argon-argon muscovite age of 424 ± 3 Ma which is interpreted as dating cooling. However, within two samples from the KNC, an earlier (Middle-Late Cambrian) metamorphic event is also recorded. A biotite-grade schist yielded an Ar-Ar inverse isochron age of 506 ± 17 Ma from whole rock surfaces, in which the mineral domains are too fine-grained to date individually. An early generation of muscovite from a coarser-grained amphibolite-facies sample yielded an inverse isochron of 498 ± 13 Ma. Both isochron ages have atmospheric argon intercept values. Previous studies have documented similar Cambrian ages in the Caledonian nappes below the KNC. These results suggest correlative tectonometamorphic events in the eastern KNC and its footwall at c. 500 Ma. This Cambrian event may reflect the arrival of the Kalak Nappe Complex as a previously constructed exotic mobile belt onto the margin of Baltica. Combined with recent studies from the western Kalak Nappe Complex, the results do not support the traditional constraint on the Finnmarkian Orogeny sensu stricto. However they vindicate classic tectonic models involving a Cambrian accretion event.

Provenance record from Mesoproterozoic-Cambrian sediments of Peary Land, North Greenland: Implications for the ice-covered Greenland Shield and Laurentian palaeogeography

AbstractIn North Greenland, Precambrian crystalline basement forms restricted outcrops bordering the Inland Ice. The coverage and nature of this basement is of key importance in understanding the evolution of the Greenland Shield and its palaeogeography. Specifically, the extent of the Grenville Orogen within Greenland is difficult to resolve due to overprinting deformation and ice cover. In an effort to remove some of this uncertainty, we have examined autochthonous sedimentary deposits in Peary Land.Detrital zircon crystals in siliciclastic units of the Mesoproterozoic Independence Fjord Group (Inuiteq Sø Formation) yield ages from 1814 to 3299 Ma. The detrital population in these samples contains significant Palaeoproterozoic peaks at c. 1900 and 1990 Ma and a subordinate Neoarchaean peak at c. 2700 Ma. Detrital zircon grains from the overlying Neoproterozoic (?Marinoan) Morænesø Formation, range from 970 to 3970 Ma and include a substantial 1000–1400 Ma population that peaks at c. 1020 Ma. The (?Neoproterozoic-Lower Cambrian) Portfjeld Formation, higher in the stratigraphy, also contains late Palaeoproterozoic and late Mesoproterozoic peaks. The Palaeoproterozoic and older populations in the Morænesø and Portfjeld formations are comparable to those in the Inuiteq Sø Formation. Within these formations, the similarity of both the detrital ages and palaeocurrent directions, predominantly to the NE, suggests a consistent provenance area sourced throughout the Proterozoic. This source region was, however, affected by Grenville events after the deposition of the Inuiteq Sø Formation.Granitoid clasts within diamictites of the Morænesø Formation contain high uranium metamict zircon grains but yield best age estimates for unfoliated clasts of c. 2700 Ma. However, foliated clasts suggest c. 1250 Ma crystallization or overprinting.The age range of detritus and palaeocurrent directions is consistent with a dominant provenance from the Greenland Shield to the south-west. Potential sources include the Committee-Melville Orogen (Archaean), the Ellesmere-Inglefield Mobile Belt (Palaeoproterozoic) and the sub ice continuation of the Victoria Fjord complex (Archaean). A proximal source of late Mesoproterozoic detritus is unknown in North Greenland. It is conceivable that some of the sand-grade material may have been transported across the shield from a Grenville foreland basin, but the presence of cobble-sized clasts with indications of an Elzevirian history, strongly implies that the North Greenland basement was near to a zone of c. 1250 Ma reworking.

Neoproterozoic palaeogeography in the North Atlantic Region: Inferences from the Akkajaure and Seve Nappes of the Scandinavian Caledonides

AbstractThe Scandinavian Caledonides exposes increasingly far travelled nappes upwards (westwards). The Lower- to Middle Allochthon are widely regarded as indigenous to the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica (Fennoscandia), while higher thrust sheets (e.g. lower Upper Allochthon) have more controversial ancestries. Recent studies have suggested that thick early-Neoproterozoic (Tonian-Cryogenian) metasedimentary sequences hosted in thrust sheets of the Scandinavian, Greenland, British and Svalbard Caledonides represent two cycles of sedimentation along the peri-Rodinia (Laurentia–Baltica) margin of the supercontinent; alimented by erosion of the Grenvillian and Sveconorwegian orogenic belts. To test and expand this model, we report zircon U–Pb and whole rock Sm–Nd data from orthogneisses and siliciclastic metasediments in a transect from the (para)autochthonous Dividal Group, through the crystalline Middle Allochthon Akkajaure Nappes and into the overlying Seve Nappes (lower Upper Allochthon).The Akkajaure Nappe Complex (Middle Allochthon) is dominated by Precambrian crystalline rocks, of granitic to dioritic composition, that yield ages of 1788 ± 6, 1806 ± 15, and 1876 ± 10 Ma. These rocks are thrust over an imbricated basement (Lower Allochthon), which contains rocks of similar age, including a rhyolite dated at 1790 ± 6 Ma. The ages and Nd isotope chemistry of these rocks are identical to those from other Fennoscandian basement units and imply derivation from west of the Lofoten islands. A sample of sediment, originally attributed to the lowest unit of the overlying Seve Nappe Complex, has a detrital population dissimilar to all other Seve-Kalak Nappe samples and has a significant 1800 Ma volcanic component. This sediment was intruded by granite at 1797 ± 4 Ma. Its provenance and rapid depositional timing indicates it is better considered as part of the tectonically captured Fennoscandian basement (Middle or Lower Allochthon).Metasediments from higher Seve nappes, in Jämtland, were deposited after 730 Ma and contain a detrital zircon population indistinguishable from many sediments within the wider North Atlantic Region (NAR). Based on the similarity in detrital zircon age populations, depositional timings, and the apparent lack of material from the local Fennoscandian crystalline basement, these Jämtland Seve sediments are interpreted as peri-Rodinian deposits, which were carried along the passive margin of Baltica during the opening of Iapetus (after 610 Ma). The strong similarity of detritus across NAR sedimentary units and the Rodinian paleogeography this implies, indicates that the exotic versus endemic derivation of nappes is more relevant in terms of which side of Iapetus these rocks were sitting after rifting; Baltica side (endemic) versus Laurentia side or microplate (exotic).The detrital zircon population from the early Cambrian part of the (para)autochthonous Dividal Group is identical to that from the Jämtland Seve and modern river sands flowing off the nappes. This indicates that the Seve Nappes were in sufficient proximity to Baltica by the Cambrian to shed detritus into the Dividal Group. This supports the notion of Ordovician arrival of peri-Rodinian units onto Baltica.

Foreign contemporaries – Unravelling disparate isotopic signatures from Mesoproterozoic Central and Western Australia

Highlights•We present Nd and Hf data for the Musgrave, Madura and Albany–Fraser.•Musgrave magmatic rocks indicate 1950–1900 Ma and 1600–1550 Ma crust formation.•Albany–Fraser Orogen (AFO) magmatic rocks indicate reworking of Yilgarn crust.•Basement Hf and Nd signature of Musgrave is different to AFO but similar to Madura.•Musgrave is not the strike equivalent of the AFO.

The affinity of Archean crust on the Yilgarn—Albany–Fraser Orogen boundary: Implications for gold mineralisation in the Tropicana Zone

Highlights•Hercules Gneiss (Tropicana Zone) represents a suite of Au hosting sanukitoid magmas.•Tropicana Zone is the uplifted lower crustal margin of the Yilgarn Craton.•Best estimate of crystallisation for sanukitoid host rocks is 2692 ± 16 Ma.•High-grade metamorphic zircon growth at 2718–2554 Ma; fracturing and one phase of gold at 2100 Ma.•Gold was precipitated during several greenschist facies events within granulite gneiss hosts.

Transformation of an Archean craton margin during Proterozoic basin formation and magmatism: The Albany–Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

Highlights•Provenance analysis of zircon detritus in extensive basin systems in the Albany–Fraser Orogen.•Prolonged Proterozoic modification of an Archean craton margin.•Paleoproterozoic continental rift or backarc basin.•Mesoproterozoic ocean basin, oceanic-arc accretion, foreland basin.•Albany–Fraser Orogeny is not simply Mesoproterozoic continental collision.

Isotopic insight into the Proterozoic crustal evolution of the Rudall Province, Western Australia

Highlights•The Rudall Province is the sole Proterozoic exposure between the North and West Australian Cratons.•We present new zircon U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotope date from the Rudall Province.•We favour a Mesoproterozoic assembly of the North and West Australian Cratons.

Mesoarchean exhumation of the Akia terrane and a common Neoarchean tectonothermal history for West Greenland

Highlights•Present phase equilibrium and U-Pb geochronology from Akia terrane, West Greenland.•Supracrustal rocks in Akia Terrane deposited ≤2877 Ma & ≥2857 Ma.•Supracrustal rocks buried to >30 km, c. 820–850 °C, 8–10 kbar at 2857–2700 Ma.•Wide commonality of thermal history across W Greenland by early Neoarchean.•Neoarchean metamorphism & deformation inconsistent with bolide impact model.

Research PaperZircon geochronology reveals polyphase magmatism and crustal anatexis in the Buchan Block, NE Scotland: Implications for the Grampian Orogeny

Highlights•The geodynamic significance of the Buchan Block in NE Scotland is unclear.•Zircon geochronology reveals polyphase magmatism and anatexis at c. 490 Ma.•The data are consistent with a ‘tectonic switching’ model for the Grampian Orogeny.

Research PaperSource to sink zircon grain shape: Constraints on selective preservation and significance for Western Australian Proterozoic basin provenance

Highlights•Analysis of zircon shape relative to grain chemical composition and whole rock.•Multiple linear regression constrains which shape descriptors link source and sink.•Zircon grain width appears to be best preserved from source to sink.•Erosion parameter ‘K’ of detrital zircon populations can be based on grain shape.•Shape and size of detrital zircon carry provenance information.

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