In the past Gad Saad has collaborated on articles with Justin R. Garcia and Michel Laroche. One of their most recent publications is The interdisciplinarity of evolutionary approaches to human behavior: A key to survival in the Ivory Archipelago. Which was published in journal Futures.

More information about Gad Saad research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Gad Saad's Articles: (8)

The interdisciplinarity of evolutionary approaches to human behavior: A key to survival in the Ivory Archipelago

AbstractThis paper explores the degree of interdisciplinarity of evolutionary approaches to the study of human behavior, and the implications that any such interdisciplinarity may have for the future of evolutionary psychology (EP) as a field of scholarship. To gauge the extent of interdisciplinarity of EP, the departmental affiliation of first-authors from 1000 journal articles evenly distributed across ten leading peer-reviewed psychology journals was assessed. Findings show that journals that are evolutionary-based have more first-authors from outside of psychology, and also include a wider variety of represented disciplines. These findings are discussed in terms of their influence on the future of EP, as a model for interdisciplinary research. EP's future will be successful if it continues to promote interdisciplinarity as well as recognize the epistemological worth of multiple evolutionary paradigms and frameworks. Evolutionary principles have been successfully applied to a broad range of topics, suggesting there is great utility in evolution serving as a common language for interdisciplinary pursuits within the behavioral and social sciences. As such, academic programs such as Evolutionary Studies (EvoS) programs, whose presence continues to increase across academic institutions worldwide, epitomize the future of successful interdisciplinary scholarly training.

Are laterborns more innovative and nonconforming consumers than firstborns? A Darwinian perspective

AbstractRecent literature in evolutionary psychology argues that the effects of birth order occur as a result of a Darwinian process guided by a child's quest to maximize parental investment. Specifically, children seek to occupy unique positional niches to be singular in their parents' eyes. Research following this paradigm reveals that laterborns are much more likely to be supportive and accepting of radical scientific innovations, whereas firstborns are more likely to conform to the status quo. The current research examined the validity of this finding within the consumption setting, and the results from an exploratory study appear to support it. This constitutes the first time that a Darwinian-based framework is used to explain birth-order effects within the consumer–marketplace domain.

The marketing of evolutionary psychology

AbstractThe marketing function extends beyond the realm of goods and services. Scientific ideas must also be properly marketed using appropriate persuasion strategies. Evolutionary psychology suffers from an image problem amongst marketing scholars, many of whom remain uninterested at best and hostile at worst in applying the evolutionary lens within their research programs. This is in part due to a poor understanding of key tenets of evolutionary psychology coupled with an animus toward the framework rooted in several recurring cognitive and affective hindrances. The reality is that innumerable theoretical, epistemological, methodological, and applied benefits would accrue to marketing academics and practitioners alike by adopting the evolutionary framework within the science and practice of marketing.

A Cross-Cultural Study of In-Store Information Search Strategies for a Christmas Gift

AbstractThis study investigates usage of in-store information sources by Anglo and Franco-Canadians while Christmas shopping. A literature review revealed a number of situational, personal, and demographic variables that may influence search behavior for a Christmas gift. A survey was conducted soon after the Christmas season to explore the effects of the identified moderators on the extent of search as pertaining to a clothing gift. Three dimensions of in-store search were found: general information (e.g., displays), specific information (e.g., brand), and assistance of salesclerks. Each of the three search indices was regressed on the identified variables. Directional hypotheses were posited linking each of the moderators of search to extent of search. The models faired well both in terms of fit and in their rate of support for the hypotheses. Distinct patterns of in-store search behavior were found for each cultural group, some consistent with current knowledge, others providing new findings.

Testosterone and domain-specific risk: Digit ratios (2D:4D and rel2) as predictors of recreational, financial, and social risk-taking behaviors

AbstractPrenatal testosterone has important effects on brain organization and future behavior. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D), a proxy of prenatal testosterone exposure, has been linked to a wide variety of sexually differentiated dispositions and behaviors. We examine the relationship between digit length ratios (2D:4D and rel2, the length of the second finger relative to the sum of the lengths of all four fingers) and risk-taking behaviors across five domains: financial, social, recreational, ethical, and health. In a sub-sample of male Caucasians (ethnically homogeneous), lower rel2 was predictive of greater financial, social, and recreational risk-taking, whereas lower 2D:4D was predictive of greater risk-taking in two domains (social and recreational). In the full male sub-sample (ethnically heterogeneous), the only significant correlation was a negative association between 2D:4D and financial risk. A composite measure of risk-taking across all five domains revealed that both rel2 and 2D:4D were negatively correlated with overall risk-taking in both male sub-samples. No significant correlations were found in the female sub-samples. Finally, men were more risk-seeking than women across all five contexts.

Suicide triggers as sex-specific threats in domains of evolutionary import: Negative correlation between global male-to-female suicide ratios and average per capita gross national income

SummaryFrom an evolutionary perspective, suicide is a paradoxical phenomenon given its fatal consequences on one’s reproductive fitness. That fact notwithstanding, evolutionists have typically used kin and group selection arguments in proposing that suicide might indeed be viewed as an adaptive behavioral response. The current paper posits that in some instances, suicide might be construed as the ultimate maladaptive response to “crushing defeats” in domains of great evolutionary import (e.g., mating). Specifically, it is hypothesized that numerous sex-specific triggers of suicide are universally consistent because they correspond to dire sex-specific attacks on one’s reproductive fitness (e.g., loss of occupational status is much more strongly linked to male suicides). More generally, it is proposed that many epidemiological aspects of suicide are congruent with Darwinian-based frameworks. These include the near-universal finding that men are much more likely to commit suicide (sexual selection theory), the differential motives that drive men and women to commit suicide (evolutionary psychology), and the shifting patterns of suicide across the life span (life-history theory). Using data from the World Health Organization and the World Bank, several evolutionary-informed hypotheses, regarding the correlation between male-to-female suicide ratios and average per capita Gross National Income, are empirically tested. Overall, the findings are congruent with Darwinian-based expectations namely as economic conditions worsen the male-to-female suicide ratio is exacerbated, with the negative correlation being the strongest for the “working age” brackets. The hypothesized evolutionary outlook provides a consilient framework in comprehending universal sex-specific triggers of suicide. Furthermore, it allows suicidologists to explore new research avenues that might remain otherwise untapped if one were to restrict their research interests on the identification of proximate causes of suicide. Global clinical and epidemiological data emphasizing other universally robust triggers of suicide would afford additional support for the postulated framework.

WITHDRAWN: Gift giving at Israeli weddings as a function of genetic relatedness and kinship certainty

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. The article will be reinstated on another publisher’s platform as soon as possible.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at

Original ArticleThe framing effect when evaluating prospective mates: an adaptationist perspective

AbstractSex differences in the framing effect within the mating domain (and the underlying negativity bias) were investigated. In three separate studies, men and women evaluated eight prospective mates, each of which was described using either positively or negatively framed attribute information. The key difference between the three studies was the temporal context of the relationship for which the mates were considered (long-term versus short-term) and the quality of mates that were presented to the participants (high quality versus low quality). Overall, women exhibited larger framing effects than men (and in three of the four experimental conditions), and this sex difference was driven by women's greater sensitivity to negatively framed information. This robust sex effect is a manifestation of the greater vigilance that women show within the mating domain (consistent with parental investment theory). At the attribute level, women displayed stronger framing effects than men in 10 of the 11 cases where significant results were found, and these were on attributes that accord with evolutionary principles (e.g., women exhibited larger framing effects for Earning Potential and Ambition while men yielded a larger effect in only one instance for Attractive Face). Finally, the sex differences in framing effects became stronger when evaluating short-term mates as compared to long term ones (in accord with the general guiding principles of Sexual Strategies Theory). The current paper situates the framing effect within an adaptationist framework and proposes, that in many instances, the pattern with which individuals succumb to it is an instantiation of ecological rationality.

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