Biography:

In the past Ram Ranjan has collaborated on articles with Geoffrey J. Syme and Deepa Pradhan. One of their most recent publications is Chapter 10 - Justice and Equity in Watershed Development in Andhra Pradesh. Which was published in journal .

More information about Ram Ranjan research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Ram Ranjan's Articles: (8)

Chapter 10 - Justice and Equity in Watershed Development in Andhra Pradesh

AbstractWater reform is occurring in many countries in a variety of ways. This reform has been underpinned by growing demand for water, growing populations, urbanization, decreasing quality of potential water supplies, and the challenges posed by climate change. Watershed development (WSD) policies have played a central role in its various guises in developing and developed countries. While sustainability of water resources management has been the underlying theme of WSD, this has been expressed in different priorities and goals. These are likely to lead to different social outcomes and different formulations of policies. For example, in Australia water reform began in the 1990s with the primary goal of environmental protection. As it developed environmental protection was seen in the separation of land and water resources, the introduction of concrete water entitlement policies, and the introduction of markets. Social goals have been muted and largely assessed in terms of western social impact methodology, which had the underlying assumption that so long as there were no unacceptable social impacts, WSD (or integrated water management) policies could be adopted. This approach has led to community wide discussion as to the “rights” of irrigators vis-á-vis other interests and the presentation of a variety of equity and ethical arguments in relation to WSD. These arguments have become confused as water allocation issues have moved from local to state arenas. In contrast, there has been a clear enunciation of social goals for Indian WSD and concern for equity issues in terms of the distribution of any benefits from WSD. Issues such as property rights and the role of markets, which have been so important in Australian circumstances, have been less than evident. Different underlying issues associated with karma also exist in India but not in Australia. City versus country issues in relation to water allocation have resulted in the development of informal markets. The social, ethical, and equity issues, as in Australia, have also been shown to change as the scale of WSD policy has been considered. In this chapter the empirical results of the Andhra Pradesh case studies and the findings of a comparative study in South Australia are used to examine how the different social and equity premises of the two countries could lead to different outcomes from WSD. It also examines the issues of whether the move toward property rights and markets evidenced in several developed countries are the inevitable or most successful approach for all countries concerned with improving the public good nature of WSD.

A microscale model for thin-film evaporation in capillary wick structures

AbstractA numerical model is developed for the evaporating liquid meniscus in wick microstructures under saturated vapor conditions. Four different wick geometries representing common wicks used in heat pipes, viz., wire mesh, rectangular grooves, sintered wicks and vertical microwires, are modeled and compared for evaporative performance. The solid–liquid combination considered is copper–water. Steady evaporation is modeled and the liquid–vapor interface shape is assumed to be static during evaporation. Liquid–vapor interface shapes in different geometries are obtained by solving the Young–Laplace equation using Surface Evolver. Mass, momentum and energy equations are solved numerically in the liquid domain, with the vapor assumed to be saturated. Evaporation at the interface is modeled by using heat and mass transfer rates obtained from kinetic theory. Thermocapillary convection due to non-isothermal conditions at the interface is modeled for all geometries and its role in heat transfer enhancement from the interface is quantified for both low and high superheats. More than 80% of the evaporation heat transfer is noted to occur from the thin-film region of the liquid meniscus. The very small Capillary and Weber numbers resulting from the small fluid velocities near the interface for low superheats validate the assumption of a static liquid meniscus shape during evaporation. Solid–liquid contact angle, wick porosity, solid–vapor superheat and liquid level in the wick pore are varied to study their effects on evaporation from the liquid meniscus.

A numerical model for transport in flat heat pipes considering wick microstructure effects

AbstractA transient, three-dimensional model for thermal transport in heat pipes and vapor chambers is developed. The Navier–Stokes equations along with the energy equation are solved numerically for the liquid and vapor flows. A porous medium formulation is used for the wick region. Evaporation and condensation at the liquid–vapor interface are modeled using kinetic theory. The influence of the wick microstructure on evaporation and condensation mass fluxes at the liquid–vapor interface is accounted for by integrating a microstructure-level evaporation model (micromodel) with the device-level model (macromodel). Meniscus curvature at every location along the wick is calculated as a result of this coupling. The model accounts for the change in interfacial area in the wick pore, thin-film evaporation, and Marangoni convection effects during phase change at the liquid–vapor interface. The coupled model is used to predict the performance of a heat pipe with a screen-mesh wick, and the implications of the coupling employed are discussed.

The role of political-industry nexus in promoting illegal extraction of mineral resources and deforestation: A case of iron ore mining in Goa

Highlights•Presents a political-industry model of illegal mining and deforestation in Goa.•Illegal extraction is influenced by political survival and conviction risks.•Effective deterrence exists only when both political and conviction risks are high.•When the regulator trades off one risk with another, illegal extraction increases.•High risk of political ouster could increase illegal mining and deforestation.

Assessing the impact of mining on deforestation in India

Highlights•Explores impact of mining on deforestation across 314 districts of India for 2001–2014.•Impact of key minerals such as iron, coal, bauxite, limestone and granite is assessed.•Coal, iron or limestone producing districts suffered 450 sq km of extra forest cover loss.•Districts not producing any of the key minerals had 350 km2 lower forest loss.•Production of dolomite, quartz, fireclay and manganese was not associated with forest loss.

Environmental restoration of invaded ecosystems: How much versus how often?

AbstractThis paper derives the optimal level of restorative efforts required to restore environments degraded by invasive species invasion. Specific attention is focused on a case when restoration faces the risk of failure through relapse of the restored environment caused by repeat invasions. The level of restored environment may also play a role in its future improvement or susceptibility to failure. The tradeoff between the optimal level of environmental quality and number of restorative efforts required to attain that given environmental quality is highlighted.

Optimal renewable resource management in the presence of endogenous risk of invasion

AbstractIn this paper we examine the optimal management of a renewable resource that is at risk from alien species invasion. The objective of this paper is to derive implications for optimal management of a resource when options exist for both preventing the arrival of an invasive species and mitigating the impact of that arrival. Uncertainty about the timing and nature of an invasion can have important implications for the choice of management strategy, and a key feature of this analysis is an explicit treatment of that uncertainty.

Achieving Sustainability and Development through Collective Action? An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of the Bore Pool Sharing Program on Farm Incomes and Crop Choices

Highlights•We test for the impacts of bore well sharing among farmers in South India.•Participation in bore pool sharing increases crop incomes and also shares of water intensive crops.•Non-bore well owners in the pool are found to increase their water intensive crop shares.•Those participating in farmer schools tend to derive higher crop incomes when also in the bore pool.•Opportunistic exploitation of bore pools by richer farmers can further aggravate groundwater problem.

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