Biography:

In the past Ofer Nussbaum has collaborated on articles with Sophia Ran and Eithan Galun. One of their most recent publications is Reconstitution of fusogenic Sendai virus envelopes by the use of the detergent chaps. Which was published in journal Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics.

More information about Ofer Nussbaum research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Ofer Nussbaum's Articles: (8)

Reconstitution of fusogenic Sendai virus envelopes by the use of the detergent chaps

AbstractSendai virus envelopes have been a useful tool in studying the mechanism of membrane-membrane fusion and have served as a vehicle for introducing foreign molecules (e.g., membrane proteins) into recipient cells. Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes are routinely obtained following solubilization of virus particles with Triton X-100. This detergent has a low critical micellar concentration which precludes it from being the best detergent of choice in reconstitution studies. Nevertheless, it has remained in use since other detergents such as sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate rendered the resultant vesicles inactive. Triton X-100 may be suboptimal for studies of some proteins that need be coreconstituted with the viral envelopes. Thus, alternative advantageous detergents, which retain the envelope fusogenic activity, have been sought. In this study we show that the synthetic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps) effectively solubilizes the Sendai virions, and that the vesicles formed by simple reconstitution protocols appear structurally and biochemically similar to those obtained with Triton X-100. The resultant vesicles retain functional integrity as assessed in both fusion and hemolysis assays. This protocol seems to be useful in sendai envelope-mediated reimplantation of Fcϵ receptors into the plasma membranes of rat basophilic leukemia cells.

Reconstitution of fusogenic Sendai virus envelopes by the use of the detergent chaps

AbstractSendai virus envelopes have been a useful tool in studying the mechanism of membrane-membrane fusion and have served as a vehicle for introducing foreign molecules (e.g., membrane proteins) into recipient cells. Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes are routinely obtained following solubilization of virus particles with Triton X-100. This detergent has a low critical micellar concentration which precludes it from being the best detergent of choice in reconstitution studies. Nevertheless, it has remained in use since other detergents such as sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate rendered the resultant vesicles inactive. Triton X-100 may be suboptimal for studies of some proteins that need be coreconstituted with the viral envelopes. Thus, alternative advantageous detergents, which retain the envelope fusogenic activity, have been sought. In this study we show that the synthetic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps) effectively solubilizes the Sendai virions, and that the vesicles formed by simple reconstitution protocols appear structurally and biochemically similar to those obtained with Triton X-100. The resultant vesicles retain functional integrity as assessed in both fusion and hemolysis assays. This protocol seems to be useful in sendai envelope-mediated reimplantation of Fcϵ receptors into the plasma membranes of rat basophilic leukemia cells.

Reconstitution of fusogenic Sendai virus envelopes by the use of the detergent chaps

AbstractSendai virus envelopes have been a useful tool in studying the mechanism of membrane-membrane fusion and have served as a vehicle for introducing foreign molecules (e.g., membrane proteins) into recipient cells. Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes are routinely obtained following solubilization of virus particles with Triton X-100. This detergent has a low critical micellar concentration which precludes it from being the best detergent of choice in reconstitution studies. Nevertheless, it has remained in use since other detergents such as sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate rendered the resultant vesicles inactive. Triton X-100 may be suboptimal for studies of some proteins that need be coreconstituted with the viral envelopes. Thus, alternative advantageous detergents, which retain the envelope fusogenic activity, have been sought. In this study we show that the synthetic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps) effectively solubilizes the Sendai virions, and that the vesicles formed by simple reconstitution protocols appear structurally and biochemically similar to those obtained with Triton X-100. The resultant vesicles retain functional integrity as assessed in both fusion and hemolysis assays. This protocol seems to be useful in sendai envelope-mediated reimplantation of Fcϵ receptors into the plasma membranes of rat basophilic leukemia cells.

Quantitative determination of virus-membrane fusion events Fusion of influenza virions with plasma membranes and membranes of endocytic vesicles in living cultured cells

AbstractIncubation of fluorescently labeled influenza virus particles with living cultured cells such as lymphoma S-49 cells or hepatoma tissue culture cells resulted in a relatively high degree of fluorescence dequenching. Increase in the degree of fluorescence (35–40% fluorescence dequenching) was observed following incubation at pH 5.0 as well as at pH 7.4. On the other hand, incubation of fluorescently labeled influenza virions with erythrocyte ghosts resulted in fluorescence dequenching only upon incubation at pH 5.0. Only a low degree of fluorescence dequenching was observed upon incubation with inactivated unfusogenic influenza or with hemagglutinino-influenza virions. The results of the present work clearly suggest that the fluorescence dequenching observed at pH 5.0 resulted from fusion with the cells' plasma membranes, while that at pH 7.4 was with the membranes of endocytic vacuoles following endocytosis of the virus particles. Our results show that only the fluorescence dequenching observed at pH 7.4 − but not that obtained at pH 5.0 − was inhibited by lysosomotropic agents such as methylamine and ammonium chloride, or inhibitors of endocytosis such as EDTA and NaN3.

Membrane-bound antiviral antibodies as receptors for Sendai virions in receptor-depleted erythrocytes

AbstractAnti-Sendai virus antibodies were covalently coupled to neuraminidase-treated human erythrocytes by the use of the bifunctional crosslinking reagents, N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate or succinimidyl-4-(p-maleimidophenyl)butyrate. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes bearing antibodies were able to bind Sendai virus particles, while treated erythrocytes lacking the antibodies failed to do so. Virus particles attached to erythrocyte membranes via the antibodies were able to cause hemolysis (virus-cell fusion) and promoted cell-cell fusion. Similar results were obtained when the antibodies were coupled to cat erythrocytes which lack receptors for Sendai virus particles. Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes, similar to intact virus particles, were able to hemolyze and to induce fusion of neuraminidase-treated antibody-bearing erythrocytes. However, reconstituted envelopes containing inactive HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) but active F (fusion) glycoproteins, despite attachment to antibody-bearing erythrocytes, failed to hemolyze or to induce cell-to-cell fusion. Fusion could be restored by insertion of an active HN glycoprotein into the membranes of the reconstituted envelopes. These results suggest that the HN glycoprotein, besides being the viral attachment protein, also participates in the membrane fusion process.

Clinical evaluation (Phase I) of a human monoclonal antibody against hepatitis C virus: Safety and antiviral activity☆

AbstractBackground/Aims:HCV-AB68, a human monoclonal antibody against the envelope protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV), neutralizes HCV in cell-culture and in the HCV-Trimera mouse model. A Phase 1 clinical trial was designed to test safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of HCV-AB68 in patients with chronic HCV-infection.Methods/Results:Single doses of HCV-AB68, 0.25–40 mg, administered to 15 patients were well tolerated with no moderate or serious adverse events (SAEs) reported. In six patients, HCV-RNA levels transiently decreased by 2- to 100-fold immediately following infusion and rebound to baseline in 24–48 h. Multiple doses of HCV-AB68, 10–120 mg, were administered to 25 patients. Doses were given weekly for 3 weeks, then 3× a week during the fourth week, after which patients were followed for 3 months. No drug-related SAEs were reported and no specific pattern of adverse events was evident. Eight out of 25 patients had at least a 1-log reduction and 17 had at least a 0.75-log reduction in HCV-RNA levels from baseline at one or more time points following HCV-AB68 infusion.Conclusions:These data support the investigation of HCV-AB68 in the prevention of recurrent HCV-infection in patients who had received hepatic allografts for end-stage liver disease.

Resistance to NK Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (in K-562 Cells) does not Correlate with Class I MHC Antigen Levels

AbstractNatural Killer (NK) cells probably function as an early line of defense against virus-infected cells and tumor cells. In all cases, the killing by NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NK-CMC) is not MHC-restricted and the factors which determine the sensitivity to NK-CMC have not yet been identified. A positive correlation between resistance to NK-CMC and the level of class I MHC antigen (MHC I) expression on target cells has been reported in many studies, and in some cases a functional linkage between the two has been claimed. Several other studies have shown that there is no such correlation. By employing several experimental systems, we demonstrate here a lack of correlation between the level of MHC I and the sensitivity of K-562 cells to NK-CMC. Transfer of MHC I to MHC I-negative cells via vesicles had no effect on their resistance to NK-CMC. In addition, a decrease in resistance to NK-CMC and increase of MHC I levels was observed following target-cell membrane modulation by both application of cholesterol and hydrostatic pressure. Finally, no correlation between sensitivity to NK-CMC and MHC I expression was found in three sublines of K-562 cells. Since NK-CMC is a multistage process, it is concluded that components other than class I MHC antigens have a more prominent role in modulating the sensitivity of target cells to NK-CMC.

The use of the hydrodynamic HBV animal model to study HBV biology and anti-viral therapy

AbstractA simple reproducible and versatile small animal model for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still unavailable. We have generated a simple transient liver-targeted transgenic mouse. Hydrodynamics tail vein injection of a head-to-tail dimer of adw HBV genome (pHBVadwHTD) into immunocompetent mice generated HBsAg and HBeAg expression in both serum and hepatocytes, followed by seroconversion. The injection of pHBVadwHTD into SCID mice generated prolonged HBsAg and HBeAg antigenemia and HBV viremia. Our results demonstrate that hydrodynamic injection of naked DNA could support the generation of HBV particles. We used this model for the assessment of anti-viral agents. Administration of our human monoclonal antibodies, HBV-Ab17XTL and HBV-Ab19XTL, as well as Lamivudine (3TC) treatment suppressed HBV viremia. The model presented herein supports long and stable expression of HBV and will enable determination of various biological questions related to HBV life cycle, mutants and could enhance the development of anti-viral reagents.

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