Biography:

In the past A. Freischmidt has collaborated on articles with G. Ulrich-Merzenich. One of their most recent publications is Contribution of flavonoids and catechol to the reduction of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells by a standardised Willow bark extract. Which was published in journal Phytomedicine.

More information about A. Freischmidt research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

A. Freischmidt's Articles: (2)

Contribution of flavonoids and catechol to the reduction of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells by a standardised Willow bark extract

AbstractIntroductionA quantified aqueous Willow bark extract (STW 33-I) was tested concerning its inhibitory activity on TNF-α induced ICAM-1 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and further fractionated to isolate the active compounds.ResultsAt 50 μg/ml the extract, which had been prepared from Salix purpurea L., decreased ICAM-1 expression to 40% compared to control cells without showing cytotoxic effects. Further liquid–liquid partition revealed an ethyl acetate phase with potent reduction of ICAM-1 expression to 40% at 8 μg/ml. This fraction was comprehensively characterised by the isolation of flavanone aglyca and their corresponding glycosides, chalcone glycosides, salicin derivatives, cyclohexane-1,2-diol glycosides, catechol and trans-p-coumaric acid. All compounds were investigated for their activity on TNF-α induced ICAM-1 expression. The flavonoid and chalcone glycosides were not active up to 50 μM, whereas catechol and eriodictyol at the same concentration showed a significant reduction of ICAM-1 expression to 50% of control. Interestingly, other isolated flavanone aglyca like taxifolin, dihydrokaempferol and naringenin showed only weak or moderate inhibitory activity. Eriodictyol was a minor compound in the extract, whereas the catechol content in the extract (without excipients) reached 2.3%, determined by HPLC. One of the isolated cyclohexan-1,2-diol glucosides, 6′-O-4-hydroxybenzoyl-grandidentin, is a new natural compound.ConclusionAs catechol is quantitatively important in Willow bark extracts it can be concluded from the in vitro data that not only flavonoids and salicin derivatives, but also catechol can probably contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of Willow bark extracts.

Novel neurological and immunological targets for salicylate-based phytopharmaceuticals and for the anti-depressant imipramine

AbstractInflammatory processes are increasingly recognised to contribute to neurological and neuropsychatric disorders such as depression. Thus we investigated whether a standardized willow bark preparation (WB) which contains among other constituents salicin, the forerunner of non-steroidal antiphlogistic drugs, would have an effect in a standard model of depression, the forced swimming test (FST), compared to the antidepressant imipramine. Studies were accompanied by gene expression analyses. In order to allocate potential effects to the different constituents of WB, fractions of the extract with different compositions of salicyl alcohol derivative and polyphenols were also investigated.Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 12/group) were treated for 14 days (p.o.) with the WB preparation STW 33-I (group A) and its fractions (FR) (groups FR-B to E) in concentrations of 30 mg/kg. The FRs were characterized by a high content of flavone and chalcone glycosides (FR-B), flavonoid glycosides and salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-C), salicin and related salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) and proanthocyanidines (FR-E). The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) (F) was used as positive control. The FST was performed on day 15. The cumulative immobility time was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in group A (36%), group FR-D (44%) and by imipramine (16%) compared to untreated controls. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood. RNA samples (group A, group FR-D, and imipramine) were further analysed by rat whole genome microarray (Agilent) in comparison to untreated controls. Quantitative PCR for selected genes was performed.Genes (>2 fold, p < 0.01), affected by WB and/or FR-D and imipramine, included both inflammatory (e.g. IL-3, IL-10) and neurologically relevant targets. Common genes regulated by WB, FR-D and imipramine were GRIA 2 ↓, SRP54 ↓, CYP26B ↓, DNM1L ↑ and KITLG ↓. In addition, the hippocampus of rats treated (27 d) with WB (15–60 mg/kg WB) or imipramine (15 mg/kg bw) showed a slower serotonin turnover (5-hydroxyindol acetic acid/serotonin (p < 0.05)) depending on the dosage. Thus WB (30 mg/kg), its ethanolic fraction rich in salicyl alcohol derivatives (FR-D) (30 mg/kg) and imipramine, by being effective in the FST, modulated known and new targets relevant for neuro- and immunofunctions in rats. These findings contribute to our understanding of the link between inflammation and neurological functions and may also support the scope for the development of co-medications from salicylate-containing phytopharmaceuticals as multicomponent mixtures with single component synthetic drugs.

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