Biography:

In the past Nina Buchmann has collaborated on articles with Eugénie Paul-Limoges and Sebastian Wolf. One of their most recent publications is Effect of environmental conditions on sun-induced fluorescence in a mixed forest and a cropland. Which was published in journal Remote Sensing of Environment.

More information about Nina Buchmann research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Nina Buchmann's Articles: (7)

Effect of environmental conditions on sun-induced fluorescence in a mixed forest and a cropland

Highlights•A continuous time-series of tower-based sun-induced fluorescence was measured.•SIF and GPP had similar annual and diurnal patterns.•Depressions in SIF were found under high light and/or high VPD conditions.•Environmental conditions affect the ecosystem derived SIF-GPP relationships.

Biotic and abiotic factors controlling soil respiration rates in Picea abies stands

AbstractThe response of soil respiration to varying environmental factors was studied in four Picea abies stands (47-, 87-, 111- and 146-year old) during the 1998 growing season. While within-site variations of soil CO2 efflux (up to 1.6 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) were larger than their diurnal variability (<0.25 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1), spatial variations within a site were smaller than seasonal changes in soil respiration rates (up to 4.4 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1). Highest within-site variability of soil efflux was generally found during the summer months when maximum flux rates of 4–6 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 were reached (coefficient of variation 40%). Soil temperatures (in the Of and Oh layers, and Ah horizon) showed a pronounced seasonal course, in contrast to soil moisture. An exponential equation best described the relationships between soil temperature in the Of layer and soil CO2 efflux (r2 between 0.75 and 0.81). However, an Arrhenius type equation always resulted in lower r2 values (0.52–0.71). The Q10 values ranged between 2.39 (146-year old stand) and 3.22 (87-year old stand), averaging 2.72 for the P. abies stands within the watershed. The removal of litter and organic layers generally affected soil CO2 efflux negatively. In three of the four P. abies stands (47-, 87-, 146-year old stands), soil respiration rates were reduced by 10–20% after removal of the L and Of layer, and by 30–40% after removal of the L and most of the Of and Oh layers. Thus, mineral soil respiration seemed to contribute a major fraction to the total soil CO2 flux (>60%). Trenching shallow fine roots during collar insertion and mechanical inhibition of root in-growth during the following months allowed fine root respiration to be separated from microbial respiration only in times of highest root growth. Microbial respiration seemed to dominate the respiratory CO2 loss from the forest floor (>70%). The comparison of the annual soil CO2 efflux in the 47-year old P. abies stand (about 710 g C m−2 yr−1) with annual litterfall and root net primary productivity estimates supported this conclusion.

Strong seasonal variations in net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical pasture and afforestation in Panama

AbstractPasture and afforestation are land-use types of major importance in the tropics, yet, most flux tower studies have been conducted in mature tropical forests. As deforestation in the tropics is expected to continue, it is critical to improve our understanding of alternative land-use types, and the impact of interactions between land use and climate on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Thus, we measured net ecosystem CO2 fluxes of a pasture and an adjacent tropical afforestation (native tree species plantation) in Sardinilla, Panama from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of our paired site study were: (1) to assess seasonal and inter-annual variations in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of pasture and afforestation, (2) to identify the environmental controls of net ecosystem CO2 fluxes, and (3) to constrain eddy covariance derived total ecosystem respiration (TER) with chamber-based soil respiration (RSoil) measurements. We observed distinct seasonal variations in NEE that were more pronounced in the pasture compared to the afforestation, reflecting changes in plant and microbial activities. The land conversion from pasture to afforestation increased the potential for carbon uptake by trees vs. grasses throughout most of the year. RSoil contributed about 50% to TER, with only small differences between ecosystems or seasons. Radiation and soil moisture were the main environmental controls of CO2 fluxes while temperature had no effect on NEE. The pasture ecosystem was more strongly affected by soil water limitations during the dry season, probably due to the shallower root system of grasses compared to trees. Thus, it seems likely that predicted increases in precipitation variability will impact seasonal variations of CO2 fluxes in Central Panama, in particular of pasture ecosystems.

Research updateA.F.W. Schimper: from the ‘oecology of plant distribution’ to the ‘functional ecology of terrestrial ecosystems’

AbstractThe Schimper Symposium was held at the Annual Conference of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (Gesellschaft für Ökologie), Basle, Switzerland, from 27 to 31 August 2001.

An ecosystem approach to biodiversity effects: Carbon pools in a tropical tree plantation

AbstractThis paper presents a synthesis of experiments conducted in a tropical tree plantation established in 2001 and consisting of 22 plots of 45 m × 45 m with either one, three or six native tree species. We examined the changes in carbon (C) pools (trees, herbaceous vegetation, litter, coarse woody debris (CWD), and mineral topsoil at 0–10 cm depth) and fluxes (decomposition of CWD and litter, as well as soil respiration) both through time and among diversity levels. Between 2001 and 2009 the aboveground C pools increased, driven by trees. Across diversity levels, the mean observed aboveground C pool was 7.9 ± 2.5 Mg ha−1 in 2006 and 20.4 ± 7.4 Mg ha−1 in 2009, a 158% increase. There was no significant diversity effect on the observed aboveground C pool, but we found a significant decrease in the topsoil C pool, with a mean value of 34.5 ± 2.4 Mg ha−1 in 2001 and of 25.7 ± 5.7 Mg ha−1 in 2009 (F1,36 = 52.12, p < 0.001). Assuming that the biomass C pool in 2001 was negligible (<1 Mg ha−1), then the plantation gained in C, on average, ∼20 and lost ∼9 Mg ha−1 in biomass and soil respectively, for an overall gain of ∼11 Mg ha−1 over 8 years. Across the entire data set, we uncovered significant effects of diversity on CWD decomposition (diversity: F2,393 = 15.93, p < 0.001) and soil respiration (monocultures vs mixtures: t = 15.35, df = 11, p < 0.05) and a marginally significant time × diversity interaction on the loss of total C from the mineral topsoil pool (see above). Monthly CWD decomposition was significantly faster in monocultures (35.0 ± 24.1%) compared with triplets (31.3 ± 21.0%) and six-species mixtures (31.9 ± 26.8%), while soil respiration was higher in monocultures than in mixtures (t = 15.35, df = 11, p < 0.001). Path analyses showed that, as diversity increases, the links among the C pools and fluxes strengthen significantly. Our results demonstrate that tree diversity influences the processes governing the changes in C pools and fluxes following establishment of a tree plantation on a former pasture. We conclude that the choice of tree mixtures for afforestation in the tropics can have a marked influence on C pools and dynamics.

Original articleCommunity assembly and biomass production in regularly and never weeded experimental grasslands

AbstractWe studied the natural colonisation of new species in experimental grasslands varying in plant species richness (from 1 to 60) and plant functional group richness (from 1 to 4) in either regularly or never weeded subplots during the first 3 years after establishment. Sown species established successfully, with no differences in species richness or their relative abundances between the regularly and never weeded subplots during the study period. Aboveground biomass of sown species increased with increasing sown species richness in both treatments. While a positive relationship between sown species richness and total aboveground biomass (including colonising species) existed in the 2nd year after sowing in the regularly and never weeded subplots, this positive relationship decayed in the 3rd year in the never weeded subplots because of a higher biomass of colonising species in species-poor mixtures. Total aboveground biomass varied independently of total species richness 3 years after sowing in both treatments. Jaccard similarity of coloniser species composition between regularly and never weeded subplots decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd year, indicating a divergence in coloniser species composition. Coloniser immigration and turnover rates were higher in regularly weeded subplots, confirming that weeding counteracts species saturation and increases the chance that new colonisers would establish. Although our study shows that low diversity plant communities are unstable and converge to higher levels of biodiversity, the effects of initially sown species on community composition persisted 3 years after sowing even when allowing for succession, suggesting that colonising species mainly filled empty niche space.

Research articleA functional trait-based approach to understand community assembly and diversity–productivity relationships over 7 years in experimental grasslands

AbstractSeveral multi-year biodiversity experiments have shown positive species richness–productivity relationships which strengthen over time, but the mechanisms which control productivity are not well understood. We used experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) with mixtures containing different numbers of species (4, 8, 16 and 60) and plant functional groups (1–4; grasses, legumes, small herbs, tall herbs) to explore patterns of variation in functional trait composition as well as climatic variables as predictors for community biomass production across several years (from 2003 to 2009). Over this time span, high community mean trait values shifted from the dominance of trait values associated with fast growth to trait values suggesting a conservation of growth-related resources and successful reproduction. Increasing between-community convergence in means of several productivity-related traits indicated that environmental filtering and exclusion of competitively weaker species played a role during community assembly. A general trend for increasing functional trait diversity within and convergence among communities suggested niche differentiation through limiting similarity in the longer term and that similar mechanisms operated in communities sown with different diversity. Community biomass production was primarily explained by a few key mean traits (tall growth, large seed mass and leaf nitrogen concentration) and to a smaller extent by functional diversity in nitrogen acquisition strategies, functional richness in multiple traits and functional evenness in light-acquisition traits. Increasing species richness, presence of an exceptionally productive legume species (Onobrychis viciifolia) and climatic variables explained an additional proportion of variation in community biomass. In general, community biomass production decreased through time, but communities with higher functional richness in multiple traits had high productivities over several years. Our results suggest that assembly processes within communities with an artificially maintained species composition maximize functional diversity through niche differentiation and exclusion of weaker competitors, thereby maintaining their potential for high productivity.

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