Biography:

In the past John P. Houston has collaborated on articles with JOHN P. HOUSTON. One of their most recent publications is INTRODUCTION TO INTRODUCTION. Which was published in journal .

More information about John P. Houston research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

John P. Houston's Articles: (23)

CH 1 - What is learning? A word definition and some examples

Publisher SummaryLearning may be defined in many ways. According to the sample definition, learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. In this definition, changes in behavior resulting from motivational fluctuations, maturation, and various physical and physiological factors are excluded from consideration. A distinction between learning and performance must be made, and reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur. This chapter presents the following learning tasks employed by psychologists in their laboratories: classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, discrimination learning, serial learning, paired-associate learning, free recall, concept formation, problem solving, and language acquisition. However, these are only a few of the many learning paradigms employed by psychologists. Psychologists are also uncertain about whether these tasks represent many different, distinct types of learning or merely different varieties of some common underlying process.

CH 3 - Learning tasks: Some similarities and differences

Publisher SummaryThis chapter explores some of the similarities of learning tasks to evaluate them in relation to the apparent differences among the same tasks. It also presents three representative varieties of learning are presented. They include instrumental conditioning, classical conditioning, and paired associate (PA) learning. The chapter also explores the differences between classical and instrumental conditioning. In classical eyelid conditioning, the CR may reduce the impact of the noxious UCS. By blinking, the subject partially avoids the air puff. To the extent that the CR does avoid the air puff, it becomes instrumental in the animal's life. It affects its future well-being.

CH 9 - Transfer of training

Publisher SummaryThis chapter discusses the concept of transfer of training. Learning successive paired-associate lists in a laboratory is a far cry from the more global kinds of transfer effects that one might hope to understand in the world outside the laboratory. However, through carefully controlled experimentation, one may identify some of the principles and generalizations that will eventually help to understand the more complicated, relevant examples of everyday transfer. The basic transfer experiment involves two stages. The subject first learns one task and then attempts to master a second somewhat similar task. Within this simple, convenient framework, any number of variables may be manipulated. The chapter discusses the complex relationship between similarity and transfer. It also presents a clarification of the close relationship between generalization and the concept of transfer of training. Some of the theoretical issues concerning the mechanisms of transfer of training are also discussed in the chapter.

7 - COGNITION

No abstract

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