In the past Lin Gan has collaborated on articles with Ting-Ting Jiang and Xin Lin. One of their most recent publications is The making of the global environmental facility: An actor's perspective☆. Which was published in journal Global Environmental Change.

More information about Lin Gan research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Lin Gan's Articles: (33)

The making of the global environmental facility: An actor's perspective☆

AbstractGlobal environmental problems have become a key concern of the international environmental policy agenda in the 1990s. The role of international development assistance organizations is crucial in helping developing countries respond to the new environmental challenges. This article reviews the recent environmental policy development, in particular the Global Environment Facility, in the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme. It discusses the dynamics of the policy-making process from an actor's perspective. It emphasizes how various social groups influence the policy-making process. It also analyses the roles played by governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations in policy development. In addition, a discussion of the response of the Chinese government to the Global Environment Facility is presented.

Screening and identification of potential protein biomarkers for evaluating the efficacy of intensive therapy in pulmonary tuberculosis

Highlights•The one-year cure rate was significantly higher in sputum negative patients after 2-months intensive therapy.•Four potential biomarkers were found for evaluating the efficacy of 2-months intensive therapy in TB patients.•CO7 and ANGT could serve as potential biomarkers to evaluate the bacteriological condition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after intensive therapy.

Regular ArticleExpression and Functional Analysis of Mouse EXT1, a Homolog of the Human Multiple Exostoses Type 1 Gene☆

AbstractHereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal dominant skeletal disorder. The gene for EXT1 maps to human chromosome 8q24.1 and encodes an evolutionary conserved protein that is a member of a multigene family. The mouse homolog of human EXT1 protein is 99% similar to its human counterpart. Here, we present the expression profiles of the mouse EXT1 gene. EXT1 mRNA is initially expressed at 6.5 days post-coitum (d.p.c.), which coincides with gastrulation of the mouse embryo. Whole mountin situhybridization with 10.5 to 12.5 d.p.c. mouse embryos showed a high level of expression of EXT1 mRNA in developing limb buds. Epitope tagging experiments revealed the endoplasmic reticulum localization of EXT1 protein. This localization was consistent with a hydrophobic stretch of amino acids present at the N-terminal end of the EXT1 protein. These results provide novel information on the function of EXT1 and the etiology of hereditary multiple exostoses.

Research ArticleHighly dispersed Pt nanoparticles by pentagon defects introduced in bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube support and their enhanced catalytic activity on methanol oxidation

AbstractBamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs), which were synthesized through chemical vapor deposition by using cresol as the carbon source, were explored as Pt catalyst support in comparison with conventional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Vulcan XC carbon blacks. The pyrolysis of cresol produced a large amount of pentagon defects introduced in the walls of BCNTs, which could possess higher chemical activity and stronger interaction with metal particles. After a mild purification, the BCNTs exhibited more oxygen-containing functional groups than CNTs, as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The formed oxygen-containing functional groups as well as the pentagon defects could act as uniform active sites for metal particle loading. By ethylene glycol reduction, highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution of 2–3 nm were easily supported on BCNTs, as shown by transmission electron microscope. The Pt/BCNT catalyst showed higher electro-catalytic activity on the methanol oxidation than the Pt/CNT and Pt/Vulcan XC catalyst, which could be largely ascribed to the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles due to the introduced pentagon defects in the tube-walls (comparing with Pt/CNT) and the graphitic nanotube network that could provide good electron conduction (comparing with Pt/Vulcan XC).

ReviewChemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors as switches and sensors

AbstractBecause of the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructural nature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their advantages of chemical flexibility and sensitivity arising from the susceptibility of their active surfaces to interacting species, great effort has been made to integrate carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (NTFETs) into functional optoelectronic devices capable of converting external stimuli to easily detectable electrical signals. In this Review article, we aim to capture recent advances of rational design and chemical functionalization of NTFETs for the purpose of switching or biosensing applications. To provide a deeper understanding of the device responses to analytes, this review will also survey the proposed sensing mechanisms. As demonstrated by these remarkable examples, the concept of combining the proper selection of functional molecular materials and molecular self-assembly with device micro/nanofabrication offers attractive new prospects for constructing NTFET-based molecular optoelectronic devices with desired functionalities.

Full PapersA Positive cis-Regulatory Element with a bicoid Target Site Lies within the Sea Urchin Spec2a Enhancer

AbstractActivation of the aboral ectoderm-specific Spec2a gene in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos requires an upstream regulatory region that is part of a repetitive sequence element (RSR) associated with all Spec1/Spec2 genes. Deletions from the 5′ end of Spec2a-flanking DNA, monitored for activity using the sea urchin embryo gene-transfer expression system, indicated that this regulatory region has multiple DNA elements and that no positive element lies upstream of the RSR. We mapped the regulatory region using Spec2a fragments containing RSR sequences fused to an SV40 minimal promoter. The region between base pairs -443 and -631, defined as the RSR enhancer, was essential for maximal activity and conferred preferential aboral ectoderm expression to a lacZ reporter gene. Expression was not fully restricted to aboral ectoderm, however, suggesting that negative spatial elements are also associated with the proper activation of Spec2a. DNaseI footprinting and band-shift analysis of the RSR enhancer identified an A/T-rich DNA element, the A/T palindrome. This element binds a single 45-kDa nuclear protein, the A/T palindrome binding protein (A/TBP), whose specificity suggests a possible relationship with the bicoid-class homeodomain proteins. Mutations of the A/T palindrome are incapable of binding the 45-kDa protein and lower promoter activity by eight-fold. DNA-binding activity for A/TBP is low in unfertilized eggs, increases by the 16-cell stage and continues rising in blastulae. These data suggest that A/TBP plays a major role in the activation of the Spec2a gene in aboral ectoderm cells.

Regular ArticlePOU Domain Factor Brn-3b Is Essential for Retinal Ganglion Cell Differentiation and Survival but Not for Initial Cell Fate Specification

AbstractWhile the mammalian retina is well understood at the anatomical and physiological levels, little is known about the mechanisms that give rise to the retina's highly ordered pattern or its diverse neuronal cell types. Previous investigations have shown that gene disruption of the POU-IV class transcription factor Brn-3b (Brn-3.2) resulted in the loss of most retinal ganglion cells in retinas of postnatal mice. Here, we used lacZ and human placental alkaline phosphatase genes knocked into the brn-3b locus to follow the fate of brn-3b-mutant cells in the developing retina. We found that Brn-3b was not required for the initial commitment of retinal ganglion cell fate or for the migration of ganglion cells to the ganglion cell layer. However, Brn-3b was essential for the normal differentiation of retinal ganglion cells; without it, the cells underwent enhanced apoptosis. Retinal ganglion cells lacking brn-3b extended processes at the appropriate time in development, but these processes were disorganized, resulting in a thinner optic nerve. Explanted retinas from brn-3b-null embryos also extended processes when cultured in vitro, but the processes were shorter and less bundled than in wild-type retinas. Ultrastructural and marker analyses showed that the processes of mutant ganglion cells had dendritic rather than axonal features, suggesting that mutant cells formed dendrites in place of axons. These results suggest that Brn-3b regulates the activity of genes whose products play essential roles in the formation of retinal ganglion cell axons.

Variable step least mean square adaptive filtering method for wireless capsule endoscopy positioning system

AbstractThe wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) is the main method to diagnose intestinal and gastrointestinal diseases, and the positioning system is an important part of WCE. The random electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem in WCE magnetic positioning method is discussed. A mathematical model of magnetic dipole magnetic signal interference is established, the effect of random interference on magnetic signal is reduced by using the variable step least mean square (VS-LMS) self-adaptive filtering algorithm. The pulse width, peak power and occurrence time of the three influencing factors are analyzed respectively. Finally, Monte Carlo experimental method was used to analyse the statistical distribution of magnetic interference signals.

Thermal conductivity of electrospinning chain-aligned polyethylene oxide (PEO)

Highlights•Thermal conductivity of electrospun semi-crystalline PEO fibers has been improved more than 100 times over bulk polymer.•High thermal conductivity was the result of high degree of PEO molecular alignment.•There is crystalline and amorphous region in the fibers, whose average molecular alignment was measured by oriented FTIR.•Amorphous region were more crucial in improving thermal conductivity of PEO fibers.

Heat-counteracted strategy for tailoring the cell structure and properties of sustainable poly(butylene succinate) foams

Highlights•.Heat-counteracted strategy solved the exothermic effect from AC decomposition.•PBS foams with high closed-cell fraction and narrow cell size distribution was prepared.•PBS foams with low thermal conductivity and high flexural strength was prepared.

High efficient removal of tin from lead bullion based on the oxygen-controlling method under vacuum

Highlights•The technique with oxygen control under vacuum condition was used for the first time to remove tin in crude lead.•Detinned lead (Sn < 3 ppm) was obtained by using air as oxidizing agent.•The reaction system was under a vacuum, which resulted in little Pb-loss and the dusty slag was kept in the reactor thereby creating a good work environment.

Preparation of fungus-derived chitin nanocrystals and their dispersion stability evaluation in aqueous media

Highlights•Fungus-derived chitin nanocrystal exhibited a rod morphology and high crystallinity.•Dispersity of chitin nanocrystal strongly depended on concentration and ion strength.•Electrostatic repulsion between chitin nanocrystals contributed to stable dispersion.•Fungus-derived chitin nanocrystal showed a potential as human-contacting chemicals.

Erosion behavior and surface cracking mechanism of Co-based coating deposited via PTA under high-speed propellant airflow

Highlights•Coating erosion is manifested by the melting and peeling off of the eutectic structure.•The erosion is accompanied by unsteady oxidation reactions.•Embrittlement cracking occurs on the low-plasticity hard phase under transient temperature shock.•Stress concentration produces cracks after low melting eutectic removal.

Effects of pre-sintering and annealing on the optical transmittance of Zr-doped Y2O3 transparent ceramics fabricated by vacuum sintering conjugated with post-hot-isostatic pressing

AbstractIn this work, Zr-doped Y2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum pre-sintering at various temperatures ranging from 1650 to 1800 °C combined with a post-hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment. The pre-sintered samples all show black opaqueness mainly due to the formation of oxygen vacancies, which can be removed by post-annealing in air. The HIP treatment can also eliminate the blackness as well as residual pores, giving rise to optical transparency. The in-line transmittance of the samples after HIP was found to depend strongly on the microstructure of the as-sintered samples. The optimal microstructure of these types of samples before the HIP treatment should be fine grained with only intergranular pores, which can easily be removed by HIP. Annealing before HIP was shown to be necessary to enhance the transmittance of the samples. The effects of the pre-sintering heating rate on the optical transmittance of the HIP-treated samples were also studied.

Effects of ZrO2-La2O3 co-addition on the microstructural and optical properties of transparent Y2O3 ceramics

AbstractCommercial Y2O3 powder was used to fabricate Y2O3 ceramics sintered at 1600 °C and 1800 °C with concurrent addition of ZrO2 and La2O3 as sintering aids. One group with different contents of La2O3 (0–10 mol%) with a fixed amount of 1 mol% ZrO2 and another group with various contents of ZrO2 (0–7 mol%) with a fixed amount of 10 mol% La2O3 were compared to investigate the effects of co-doping on the microstructural and optical properties of Y2O3 ceramics. At low sintering temperature of 1600 °C, the sample single doped with 10 mol% La2O3 exhibits much denser microstructure with a few small intragranular pores while the samples with ZrO2 and La2O3 co-doping features a lot of large intergranular pores leading to lower density. When the sintering temperature increases to 1800 °C, samples using composite sintering aids exhibit finer microstructures and better optical properties than those of both ZrO2 and La2O3 single-doped samples. It was proved that the grain growth suppression caused by ZrO2 overwhelms the acceleration by La2O3. Meanwhile, 1 mol% ZrO2 acts as a very important inflection point with regard to the influence of additive concentration on the transmittance, pore structure and grain size. The highest in-line transmittance of Y2O3 ceramic (1.2 mm in thickness) with 3 mol% of ZrO2 and 10 mol% of La2O3 sintered at 1800 °C for 16 h is 81.9% at a wavelength of 1100 nm, with an average grain size of 11.2 µm.

Short communicationEnhancement of the thermal shock resistance of transparent Y2O3 ceramics by reducing the content of sintering additive

AbstractIt is known that 1.0 at.% is the lowest amount of ZrO2 which can be used for the sintering of well-balanced Y2O3 ceramics to ensure both transparency and strength. In this work, a highly transparent Y2O3 ceramic material doped with a reduced amount of ZrO2 (0.5 at.%) was fabricated by means of a hot-press sintering method at a temperature as low as 1600°C using commercial powders. The in-line transmittance of the 0.5 at.% ZrO2-doped Y2O3 sample (2 mm thick) is 80.8% at 1100 nm and 72.2% at 400 nm with an average grain size of 1.06 μm. By reducing the ZrO2 content from 1.0 to 0.5 at.%, the thermal conductivity is increased by 18.2% with only a slight decline in the strength and the band gap becomes broader. Consequently, the Hasselman mild-thermal-shock figure of merit of the developed specimen increases by 13.0% overall. These results indicate that this Y2O3 ceramic has potential for use as a laser host or an infrared window material used on Mach-speed applications.

Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

AbstractThis article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

Cloning and comparative sequence analysis of TP53 in Xiphophorus fish hybrid melanoma models

AbstractWe have cloned and sequenced the p53-encoding cDNA of green swordtail (X. helleri) and southern platyfish (X. maculatus). These two fish species are often used to produce hybrids that develop melanomas after genetic crossing. Computer translation of derived cDNA sequences revealed that p53 polypeptides from these two species are virtually identical, exhibiting only two conservative amino acid substitutions. TP53 mRNA expression was detected in virtually all tissues tested. Comparison of these fish p53 polypeptide sequences with those of other vertebrates, including other fishes, amphibians, and mammals, revealed that conservation is especially high in several previously defined protein domains. In addition, sequencing of the 3′ TP53 genomic region of X. maculatus reveals similarity to the human TP53 locus in overall organization. Knowledge of the Xiphophorus TP53 sequences will allow assessment of mutational alterations within tumors generated from numerous fish genetic crosses.

Enhancing immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated avian influenza H9N2vaccine with recombinant chicken IFN-α in chicken

Highlights•Recombinant chicken IFN-α can improve the preventive effect of inactivated avian influenza H9N2 vaccine.

Short communicationThree-dimensional nanoporous gold–cobalt oxide electrode for high-performance electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium

Highlights•NPG film/Ni foam serves as the 3D hierarchical porous conductive scaffold.•Co3O4 nanosheet arrays were hydrothermally grown on the 3D NPG/Ni foam composite.•[email protected]/Ni foam exhibits superior activity and stability toward peroxide reduction.

Back | Next (Page 1 of 2)
Join Copernicus Academic and get access to over 12 million papers authored by 7+ million academics.
Join for free!

Contact us