In the past Shashi Kant has collaborated on articles with Rishi K. Somvanshi and Purnendu Nasker. One of their most recent publications is Sustainable joint forest management through bargaining: a bilateral monopoly gaming approach. Which was published in journal Forest Ecology and Management.

More information about Shashi Kant research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Shashi Kant's Articles: (22)

Sustainable joint forest management through bargaining: a bilateral monopoly gaming approach

AbstractThe failure of forest owners and managers to exclude user groups from use of the resource forces them to opt for a collaborative management approach, termed as joint management or comanagement. Joint forest management has been compared with agriculture crop sharing arrangements. With the objective of making joint forest management a sustainable venture, a model based on the cooperative/bargaining nature of the agreements for sharing the forest produce between the two partners has been developed. Shares of the two partners have been worked out for two cases of joint forest management from the state of West Bengal in India, and outcomes have been compared with existing sharing arrangements.

Surface plasmon resonance studies and biochemical evaluation of a potent peptide inhibitor against cyclooxygenase-2 as an anti-inflammatory agent

AbstractCyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of prostaglandins, which are mediators of inflammation [D.L. Dewitt, W.L. Smith, Primary structure of prostaglandin G/H synthase from sheep vesicular gland determined from the complementary DNA sequence, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 (1988) 1412–1416, 1]. It exists mainly in two isoforms COX-1 and COX-2 [A. Raz, A. Wyche, N. Siegel, P. Needleman, Regulation of fibroblast cyclooxygenase synthesis by interleukin-1, J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 3022–3028, 2]. The conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have adverse gastrointestinal side-effects, because they inhibit both isoforms [T.D. Warner, F. Guiliano, I. Vojnovic, A. Bukasa, J.A. Mitchell, J.P. Vane, Nonsteroid drug selectivities for cyclo-oxygenase-1 rather than cyclo-oxygenase-2 are associated with human gastrointestinal toxicity: a full in vitro analysis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 7563–7568, 3; L.J. Marnett, A.S. Kalgutkar, Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors: discovery, selectivity and the future, Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 20 (1999) 465–469, 4; J.R. Vane, NSAIDs, Cox-2 inhibitors, and the gut, Lancet 346 (1995) 1105–1106, 5]. Therefore drugs which selectively inhibit COX-2, known as coxibs were developed. Recent reports on the harmful cardiovascular and renovascular side-effects of the anti-inflammatory drugs have led to the quest for a novel class of COX-2 selective inhibitors. Keeping this in mind, we have used the X-ray crystal structures of the complexes of the COX-1 and COX-2 with the known inhibitors for a rational, structure based approach to design a small peptide, which is potent inhibitor for COX-2. The peptides have been checked experimentally by in-vitro kinetic studies using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other biochemical methods. We have identified a tripeptide inhibitor which is a potential lead for a new class of COX-2 inhibitor. The dissociation constant (KD) determined for COX-2 with peptide WCS is 1.90 × 10−10 M, the kinetic constant (Ki) determined by spectrophotometry is 4.85 × 10−9 M and the IC50 value is 1.5 × 10−8 M by ELISA test.

Molar volume, viscosity and conductance studies of some alkali metal chlorides in aqueous ascorbic acid

AbstractMolar volume, viscosity and conductance of lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) in 0.01 m aqueous ascorbic acid have been calculated from density, viscosity and conductance data at temperatures 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K. The solute–solvent interactions for LiCl, NaCl and KCl have been inferred from ϕvo, B-coefficient of Jones–Dole equation and Λmo values. The structure making/breaking behavior of LiCl, NaCl and KCl is inferred from the sign of [∂2ϕvo/∂T2]p, dB/dT and temperature coefficient of Walden product i.e. d(Λmoηo)/dT values. It has been found from molar volume, viscosity and conductance studies that LiCl, NaCl and KCl behaves as structure-breaker in 0.01 m aqueous ascorbic acid solution. The energy of activation for LiCl, NaCl and KCl is calculated from conductance and viscosity data and it has found that EΛ is less than Eη.

Short communicationFluorine substituted nano hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, bio-activity and antibacterial response study

AbstractIn the present investigation, nano hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite (FHAp) with varying fluorine concentrations have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. The as synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and ion chromatography (IC) for fluorine content analysis. XRD results showed shifting of HAp peaks with increasing fluorine substitution and detected calcium fluoride (CaF2) phase in the synthesized powders where theoretically 100% or more OH ions substituted by F ions. The crystallinity of HAp powder gradually increased and cell volume decreased with fluorine substitution. HRTEM of the synthesized powders showed the nano rod like morphology. The IC was carried out to understand the degree fluoridation in the synthesized powder. The IC result of in vitro fluorine ion leaching showed that fluorine concentration in aqueous medium depends on the degree of fluoridation in the synthesized powder. The as synthesized powders were checked for antimicrobial activity by using both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) strains. The powder having ~33% fluorine substitution showed bactericidal effect. The in vitro fluorine ion release study showed significantly high fluorine concentration in aqueous medium for the HAp powders having more than 50% fluorine substituted. The in vitro cell viability assay using mouse osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) confirmed that the powders were non-cytotoxic.

Multi-Domain Subjective Wellbeing of Two Canadian First Nations Communities

Highlights•Social, cultural, and land use (SCLU) domain is the most important domain.•SCLU factors also contribute to other domains’ wellbeing.•SCLU domain: land laws, traditional diets, social ties, and cultural sites are critical.•Housing domain: space and maintenance are more important than the title.•The study opens new paths for exploring the local meaning of wellbeing.

Investigation of a problem of an elastic half space subjected to stochastic temperature distribution at the boundary

Highlights•A problem of half space with randomly varying temperature at boundary is solved.•Two stochastic type temperature distributions are applied at the boundary plane.•Integral transform technique and stochastic simulation are applied.•The effects of stochastic type boundary conditions are highlighted.•Results are compared with the results for deterministic cases.

AnalysisRelative shadow prices of social capital for household-level paper recycling units in Vietnam

AbstractThis study employs a parametric deterministic input distance function for computing the relative shadow prices of social capital with respect to physical capital and labor for household-level paper-recycling units in Vietnam. The results indicate that social capital has positive effects on the production efficiency of paper-recycling units. More specifically, the contribution of a 1% increase in social capital to production efficiency improvements is much greater than that of one million Vietnamese dong of physical capital, but less than that of 100 worker-hours of labor. Furthermore, associational activity and trust are the most valuable out of the four components of social capital and an increase of 1% in the measures of associational activity and trust is equal to an increase of US$364.936 and US$337.103 in the value of physical capital, respectively. The results also indicate that the relative shadow prices of the reciprocity and associational activity measures are highest for the lowest income group; whereas those of trust and information sharing are highest among the higher income groups.

AnalysisEvaluation of welfare functions of environmental amenities: A case of forest biomass fuels in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

AbstractThis study is an empirical investigation of welfare functions of forest biomass fuels in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. The want parameter of welfare function was found to vary with household's current fuel consumption which reflects people's amenity aspirations shift with the amenity level attained. Furthermore, current wood consumption and welfare sensitivity parameter are also influenced by individual's environmental entitlements rather than economic entitlements. Resource scarcity induced by physical scarcity or institutional–legal constraints leads to resource conserving attitude, but not without loss in perceived well-being. Communal conservation of energy is also observed whereby large households are more energy conserving than small households. Regarding biomass use and consumption, monetary income does not guarantee satisfaction, but heightens people's wants. Thus, rural development programs should not focus on economic empowerment only but also on environmental sustainability and fair resource use rules.

ANALYSISEndogenous time preferences of forest goods and community-based forest management

AbstractIn the economic analysis of CBFM, people's discount rates are assumed exogenous and same for all goods. We examined the validity of this assumption by eliciting the discount rates of households for grass, timber, fuelwood and money, and analyzed the impacts of various personal and economic factors on households' discount rates. We found that time preferences are endogenous and good-specific. A good proportion of households have infinite discount rates for forest goods. The mean values of monthly discount rates, for households that indicated finite discount rates, are 0.67 for timber, 6.83 for fuelwood, 55.49 for grass, and 3.47 for money. The availability of alternative sources and current consumption of the forest goods are two main determinants of a household's discount rates. The study provides many useful insights for the design and implementation of CBFM programs: the concept of “mental accounting” should be used for economic analyses of CBFM programs, different management strategies should be adopted for different forest goods, and alternative sources should be provided to meet the current needs of the households.

ANALYSISSustainable management of uneven-aged private forests: a case study from Ontario, Canada

AbstractA matrix growth model is estimated on the basis of growth data (growth period 5 years) of 14 measurement plots of uneven-aged white pine from southern Ontario. The impact of three economic factors specific to the private forests on the sustainable management of private woodlots is evaluated and discussed, and the trade-off between environmental and economic values is examined. These three economic factors are: (1) choice of the rate of time preference; (2) income and property taxes; and (3) subsidy for rehabilitation of degraded forests. Property tax, based on market price of land, is neutral, but income tax is not neutral with respect to harvesting decisions, growing stock, environmental and ecological values, and economic values. High rates of time preference and income tax will lead to the conversion of uneven-aged forest into even-aged young forest leading to the loss of ecological and environmental values. As a result of the discrete nature of tree distribution and prices of different size trees, increased income tax rates may not result in higher tax revenue. The fiscal policies need be sensitive to the nature of forests to encourage sustainable management practices on private woodlots. In the case of degraded private woodlots, a subsidy on rehabilitation cost will be desirable in place of property tax subsidy.

ANALYSISA dynamic approach to forest regimes in developing economies

AbstractIn the developing economies, optimal forest regimes should incorporate the socio-economic characteristics of the user groups. And, since socio-economic factors will change with time, optimal forest regimes will also follow a dynamic path. The two most important socio-economic factors are the heterogeneity of the user group with respect to forest management and the direct dependence of the user group on forest. Normally, the heterogeneity will increase and dependence will decrease with economic growth of user group. An optimal control model is used to integrate the dynamics of natural system such as joint product of forests and its growth function, and the dynamics of the two socio-economic factors — heterogeneity and dependence. The model demonstrates that the dynamics of optimal forest regimes will depend upon the change in natural factors, socio-economic factors, and on the interactions between natural and socio-economic factors. Hence, optimal forest management strategies would require a continuous refinement in forest management regimes, instead of static state regimes, as local communities in developing economies pass through different phases of economic growth.

A novel nanocomposite of polyaniline and Fe0.01Ni0.01Zn0.98O: Photocatalytic, electrical and antibacterial properties

Highlights•We synthesized a novel nanocomposite of Fe0.01Ni0.01Zn0.98O and polyaniline.•Its photocatalytic behavior was compared with Fe0.01Ni0.01Zn0.98O nanoparticles.•A whopping 99.47% dye removal was achieved in 5 h for the composite.•The composite has higher dc conductivity than nanoparticles.•Remarkable antibacterial activity is achieved against E. coli.

Economic efficiency and shadow prices of social and biological outputs of village-level organizations of joint forest management in Gujarat, India

AbstractJoint forest management (JFM) has been argued as an optimal institutional arrangement for economic, ecological, and social sustainability, and village-level organizations (production units) are responsible for all the productive activities of JFM. A deterministic output distance function characterizing the production structure of JFM production units, in the Gujarat state of India, is calculated using the production data from 50 village-level organizations and employing a deterministic linear programming technique. The distance function includes economic, biological, and social outputs, and conventional and non-conventional factors. The results are used to calculate the efficiency and relative shadow prices of social and biological outputs of different village-level JFM organizations. Policy and management implications of efficiency and shadow prices are discussed.

A detailed comparative study on responses of four heat conduction models for an axisymmetric problem of coupled thermoelastic interactions inside a thick plate

AbstractThe objective of the present work is to analyze the thermoelastic interactions inside an infinitely extended thick plate due to an axisymmetric temperature distribution applied at the lower and upper surfaces of the plate under recent heat conduction models, namely Green-Naghdi-I model, Green-Naghdi-II model, dual phase-lag model and Green-Lindsay model. In order to investigate the problem under all these four heat conduction models simultaneously, we consider the basic governing equations under all these models and formulate our problem in a unified way. The potential function concept along with Laplace and Hankel transform techniques has been used to solve the problem. Inversion of Hankel transform has been carried out analytically to obtain the solution in Laplace transform domain. The short-time approximation technique is employed to invert the solutions obtained in Laplace transform domain and an appropriate analytical approach has been used to analyze the wave propagation and discontinuities of different wave fields. In addition, a numerical method has been used to invert the Laplace transform directly in order to find out the distributions of all the physical fields, like stress, temperature and displacement in the middle plane of the plate. Results are analyzed to make a comparative analysis of the predictions of Green-Naghdi-II model with the predictions by dual phase-lag thermoelastic model and other models. The special findings and differences among the predictions by four models have been highlighted.

Extending the boundaries of forest economics

AbstractThe existing forest economic models, rooted in sustained yield timber management systems and neo-classical economic framework, are subject to many limitations. Social, economic, and ecological features of sustainable forest management (SFM) are different than that of sustained yield timber management. Hence, the economics of SFM will be based on different economic principles. The two main requirements of the economics of SFM are the economics of multiple equilibria, and a consumer choice theory that incorporates heterogeneity of agents, context specific and dynamics of preferences, distinction between needs and wants, and the subordination of needs. These requirements will need the extension of the boundaries of forest economics. Five basic principles—principles of ‘both–and’, ‘existence’, ‘relativity’, ‘uncertainty’, and ‘complementarity’ will work as a foundation, and the economic principles, developed by evolutionary, institutional, ecological economists and economists from other new streams of economics, will be the useful tools to extend these boundaries.

An evolutionary game-theoretic approach to the strategies of community members under Joint Forest Management regime

AbstractJoint Forest Management (JFM) has been analyzed using an evolutionary-game-theoretic approach. The interactions between the different groups of a community, for forest use under state regime and JFM regime, are modeled as n-person asymmetric games, and the concepts of evolutionary stable strategies (ESS) and asymptotically stable states (ASS) are used to understand the variations in the outcomes of JFM program. The n-person game of forest use under the state regime has a unique Nash equilibrium in which the defectors or lawbreakers will continue to harvest forest resources illegally until the net returns from harvests become negative. The n-person forest resource use game under JFM regime has many Nash equilibriums, but has only one sub-game perfect defection equilibrium. However, the n-person game for JFM regime has four evolutionary strategy equilibriums: cooperators (C) equilibrium, defectors (D) equilibrium, defectors–enforcers (D–E) equilibrium and cooperators–enforcers (C–E) equilibrium, but has only two asymptotically stable (C–E and D–E) equilibriums. Implications of these results are discussed, and a need to enhance evolutionary game-theoretic formulation of JFM is highlighted.

A marginal cost analysis of trade-offs in old-growth preservation in Ontario

AbstractThe paper examines the economic impacts of sustainable forest management (SFM) policies in Canada. Specifically, the marginal costs (MC) of old-growth preservation in an even-aged boreal forest in northeastern Ontario are examined under the condition that forest managers need to achieve multiple objectives for SFM. Furthermore, the trade-offs of old-growth preservation are estimated, allowing the levels of three specific SFM objectives to vary, namely, providing a consistent supply of timber in each period, meeting terminal volume targets at the end of the planning horizon, and maintaining a desired age structure of the forest. MCs are higher for harvesting regimes constrained by SFM objectives compared with that in which only profit maximization is considered. We observed that MCs for these three scenarios varied more when the area allotted for old-growth preservation is small. When the area of protected old-growth forest reaches about 66% of the maximum possible, the MCs are almost the same. All MCs are iso-elastic. The even-flow volume per period has the highest marginal cost among the three cases. If managers choose to provide terminal volume that is greater than or equal to the initial volume, instead of a lesser terminal volume, then old-growth forest can be preserved at no extra cost. The study emphasizes the need for integrated and simultaneous achievement of complementary goals of SFM for better economic return and minimization of the negative economic impact of SFM on the forestry sector.

Social acceptability of alternative forest regimes in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, using stakeholder attitudes as metrics of uncertainty

AbstractThe study evaluates social acceptability of three alternative forest management regimes: state-controlled management; community-based management; and collaborative management involving multiple stakeholders. Villagers, foresters, park employees, entrepreneurs and environmentalists were surveyed. A fuzzy-logic based possibility schema for evaluation of forest stakeholder attitudes is developed, and empirically used to investigate stakeholder attitudes towards these alternative forest regimes in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Non-parametric statistical analysis is used to draw statistical inferences. The three regimes are ranked based on efficiency, justice, and (un)certainty criteria. The results indicate that the conventional bureaucratic forest regime is falling out of favor in the interests of multi-stakeholders forest management. Due to strategic significance of Mount Kilimanjaro forest resources, and diverse interests of multi-stakeholders (local to global), complete devolution of power to local communities did not gunner an overall favorable social acceptability, either, among the surveyed stakeholders. The findings, however, support a strong desire for increased societal participation in the form of collaborative multi-stakeholder forest management. This outcome calls for significant policy changes to increase participation, as well as harmonization of values and institutions of different stakeholders as a pre-requisite for negotiation among the stakeholders in Mount Kilimanjaro who seek to co-ordinate their activities for sustainable forest management.

New frontiers of forest economics☆

Highlights•The need of new frontiers of forest economics (neFFE) is discussed.•The neFFE will need a never ending fabrication on new and venturous theories.•The neFFE will include multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches.•The neFFE should incorporate and integrate various streams of economics.•The neFFE will answer the unanswered questions by developing new models and methods.

Principal-agent relationships in rural governance and benefit sharing in community forestry: Evidence from a community forest enterprise in China☆

Highlights•China had many community forest enterprises (CFEs) before the 2000s.•CFE managers were situated in multiple principal-agent relationships.•The principals assigned various non-forestry missions to CFE managers.•CFE managers had to divert timber revenue to these non-forestry missions.•The diversion made farmers as nominal CFE owners obtain little CFE revenue.

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