Biography:

One of their most recent publications is Lead reviewThe unresolved world between taxonomy and population biology: what is, and what is not, macroevolution?: Genetics, Paleontology, and Macroevolution. By Jeffrey Levinton (1988). New York: Cambridge University Press. xiv + 637 pp. $37.50, £27.50. ISBN 0-521-24933-3. Which was published in journal Journal of Human Evolution.

More information about Frederick S. Szalay research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Frederick S. Szalay's Articles: (2)

The foot of Oreopithecus: an evolutionary assessment*

A nearly complete composite foot of Oreopithecus bambolii is described and analyzed both mechanically and comparatively. Unlike the probable primitive anthropoid and catarrhine conditions in which the tarsus was considerably elongated, as in monkeys, for efficient leaping, this region is dramatically foreshortened in the Tuscan catarrhine. The phyletic reduction in the length of the tarsus exceeds that seen in the Miocene sample of Proconsul footbones. Although the foot of Oreopithecus is most similar in its inferred mechanical abilities to living chimps, the details of morphology and subtle but distinct morphological solutions to expedite virtually identical function (mechanics) strongly contradicts the hypothesis that the similarities are homologous to the shared pedal similarities observed in the living apes. The known pedal morphology of parapithecids, monkeys and hominoids is discussed in order to place Oreopithecus in a meaningful phylogenetic and functional perspective.Oreopithecus, with its decidedly advanced catarrhine pedal complex for climbing behavior, shows several modifications, namely: general robusticity of the tarsals and metatarsals; an exceptionally short load arm on the lever system of the calcaneus; strong flexor fibularis; pronounced plantar process on the calcaneal tuber; lack of tight upper ankle joint constraints; mediolateral as opposed to dorsoplantar movements favored by the astragalar head. These form-function attributes of the foot are different from those correlated with habitual pedal hanging in Pongo. The small astragalar head and the relatively undeviated long neck in the Asian ape are in revealing contrast to the conditions in Oreopithecus, although the 1958 skeleton, an adult male, was probably as large as a fully developed female orang, in the 30–35 kg, or heavier, size range.

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