Biography:

One of their most recent publications is Leading ArticleAnatomy in Surgical Examinations. Which was published in journal Surgery (Oxford).

More information about Andrew T Raftery research including statistics on their citations can be found on their Copernicus Academic profile page.

Andrew T Raftery's Articles: (2)

Leading ArticleAnatomy in Surgical Examinations

AbstractToday, more than ever, the postgraduate surgical trainee requires instruction in anatomy, for no longer does the undergraduate get a thorough grounding in anatomy. In the past, the postgraduate trainee had formal tuition and examination in anatomy at 2nd M.B. and, therefore, only recall and reinforcement of knowledge were necessary to learn the anatomy required for the old Primary Examination of the four Royal Colleges of Surgeons. In recent years, the amount of time for teaching anatomy in the undergraduate course has been drastically reduced and, in many medical schools, anatomy is taught on prosected specimens rather than allowing the student to dissect the human body. In some cases, knowledge is acquired by self-directed learning and by virtual reality programs on the computer. The old 2nd M.B. examination has virtually disappeared and teaching of anatomy has changed from a discipline-based method, to systems-based or problem-based teaching with self-directed learning. Consequently, the basic anatomical knowledge of the postgraduate trainee is now totally inadequate and much new learning is required for the professional examinations in surgery.

KidneyTreatment and Prevention of Perioperative Renal Dysfunction

AbstractThomas Starzl in Denver, USA, performed the first liver transplant in 1963. Though the initial results were poor, a number of groups developed programmes of liver transplantation in several countries during the 1960s and 1970s. However, at this stage, the procedure was considered to be experimental, since the science of organ transplantation was relatively primitive, and immunosuppression was based on the use of steroids and azathioprine. Transplantation was logistically and technically a demanding procedure that produced mediocre results and remained the preserve of a small number of pioneers.The advent of cyclosporin-based immunosuppression in 1978 heralded a new era. Organ rejection could be suppressed more reliably and the dose of steroids reduced, with substantial benefits in many areas, particularly wound healing and infectious complications. In the mid-1980s, liver transplantation moved from the status of an experimental therapy to an established treatment for end-stage liver disease. Liver transplantation expanded rapidly, with programmes opening in many countries.During the 1990s, though the enthusiasm for liver transplantation was great, liver transplant activity plateaued due to donor shortages. Meanwhile, the results continue to improve with new immunosuppressive agents, improved preservation and innovative surgical techniques.Liver transplantation is widely performed around the world. In the UK, 600–700 liver transplants are carried out annually. This is a highly specialized service carried out in seven nationally designated centres. The results of liver transplantation are comparable to those of kidney and heart transplantation and with a lower long-term attrition. Immunological problems, disease recurrence and donor availability remain the major challenges.

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