Theory of the halftone process I. The penumbra theory
Review articleOpen access
Abstract:

AbstractA method of calculating the tone reproduction curve of a halftone from the light distribution behind the halftone screen, or vice versa, is described. The actual light distribution is found to check satisfactorily with the distribution calculated from geometrical optics, i.e., penumbra theory, when coarse screens and abnormally short screen distances are used, except in the regions of very low light intensity. With fine screens and normal screen distances, both dot shape and tone reproduction differ markedly from the calculated results and can only be explained by the effects of diffraction.

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