A ternary mechanism for NADH oxidation by positively charged electron acceptors, catalyzed at the flavin site in respiratory complex I
Review articleOpen access

AbstractThe flavin mononucleotide in complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) catalyzes NADH oxidation, O2 reduction to superoxide, and the reduction of several ‘artificial’ electron acceptors. Here, we show that the positively-charged electron acceptors paraquat and hexaammineruthenium(III) react with the nucleotide-bound reduced flavin in complex I, by an unusual ternary mechanism. NADH, ATP, ADP and ADP-ribose stimulate the reactions, indicating that the positively-charged acceptors interact with their negatively-charged phosphates. Our mechanism for paraquat reduction defines a new mechanism for superoxide production by complex I (by redox cycling); in contrast to direct O2 reduction the rate is stimulated, not inhibited, by high NADH concentrations.

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