Original Research ArticlesNorplant® use among urban minority women in the United States1
Review articleOpen access

AbstractThe aim of this study was to develop a profile of urban American women who chose Norplant®, determine factors associated with retention and early termination of implants, and to determine reasons for early removal. A total of 197 adult black and Hispanic women who had Norplant inserted were followed prospectively for up to 5 years. Interval and cumulative termination rates were calculated. Data were stratified by race and analyzed to include lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) subjects. Multivariate survival analysis was used to determine variables independently associated with termination. Cumulative continuation rates were 68% after year 1 and 13% after year 4. Significant predictors of retention included black race and lower parity. Probability of early termination increased with higher parity and Hispanic race. For black subjects, recent use of hormonal contraception was a predictor of retention. Menstrual changes and weight concerns were common reasons for removal. The Norplant 1-year continuation rate is lower than previously reported, but is higher than reported for oral contraceptives and Depo-Provera®. Future studies should stratify by age, race, and parity, and use standardized terminology to report intervals of use.

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