CommentaryEmerging opportunities for allosteric modulation of G-protein coupled receptors
Review articleOpen access

AbstractTheir ubiquitous nature, wide cellular distribution and versatile molecular recognition and signalling help make G-protein binding receptors (GPCRs) the most important class of membrane proteins in clinical medicine, accounting for ∼40% of all current therapeutics. A large percentage of current drugs target the endogenous ligand binding (orthosteric) site, which are structurally and evolutionarily conserved, particularly among members of the same GPCR subfamily. With the recent advances in GPCR X-ray crystallography, new opportunities for developing novel subtype selective drugs have emerged. Given the increasing recognition that the extracellular surface conformation changes in response to ligand binding, it is likely that all GPCRs possess an allosteric site(s) capable of regulating GPCR signalling. Allosteric sites are less structurally conserved than their corresponding orthosteric site and thus provide new opportunities for the development of more selective drugs. Constitutive oligomerisation (dimerisation) identified in many of the GPCRs investigated, adds another dimension to the structural and functional complexity of GPCRs. In this review, we compare 60 crystal structures of nine GPCR subtypes (rhodopsin, ß2-AR, ß1-AR, A2a-AR, CXCR4, D3R, H1R, M2R, M3R) across four subfamilies of Class A GPCRs, and discuss mechanisms involved in receptor activation and potential allosteric binding sites across the highly variable extracellular surface of these GPCRs. This analysis has identified a new extracellular salt bridge (ESB-2) that might be exploited in the design of allosteric modulators.

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