Mechanisms for prostaglandin E2 formation caused by proteinase-activated receptor-1 activation in rat gastric mucosal epithelial cells
Review articleOpen access

AbstractProteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a thrombin receptor, plays a protective role in gastric mucosa via prostanoid formation. Thus, we studied effects of PAR1 stimulation on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation in rat normal gastric mucosal epithelial RGM1 cells and analyzed the underlying signal transduction mechanisms. The PAR1-activating peptide (PAR1-AP) and thrombin increased PGE2 release from RGM1 cells for 18 h, an effect being suppressed by inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2, MEK, p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC), Src and EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK), but not JNK and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs). PAR1-AP caused persistent (6 h or more) and transient (5 min) phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK, respectively, followed by delayed reinforcement at 18 h. PAR1-AP up-regulated COX-2 in a manner dependent on MEK and EGFR-TK, but not p38 MAPK. The PAR1-mediated persistent ERK phosphorylation was reduced by inhibitors of Src and EGFR-TK. PAR1-AP actually phosphorylated EGF receptors and up-regulated mRNA for heparin-binding-EGF (HB-EGF), the latter effect being blocked by inhibitors of Src, EGFR-TK and MEK. Heparin, an inhibitor for HB-EGF, suppressed PAR1-mediated PGE2 formation and persistent ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that PAR1 up-regulates COX-2 via persistent activation of MEK/ERK that is dependent on EGFR-TK activation following induction of HB-EGF, leading to PGE2 formation. In addition, our data also indicate involvement of COX-1, PKC and p38 MAPK in PAR1-triggered PGE2 formation. PAR1, thus stimulates complex multiple signaling pathways responsible for PGE2 formation in RGM1 cells.

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