Regular ArticleCharacterization and Identification of Exflagellation-Inducing Factor in the Salivary Gland of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
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AbstractGamete activation factor (GAF) induces exflagellation of Plasmodium microgametes. We found GAF in the salivary glands of female mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi. The exflagellation was induced in a concentration-dependent manner in the supernatant of salivary gland's crude homogenate. The exflagellation-inducing activity in the salivary gland was higher than that in the midgut and the head. GAF in the salivary glands was found to be heat stable and low molecular weight (<3000 molecular weight). Analysis of the supernatant by capillary electrophoresis and UV absorbance profile showed that the salivary glands contained xanthurenic acid, which was previously identified as GAF in the head of A. stephensi. The exflagellation-inducing activity in the salivary gland declined immediately after a blood meal, implying that GAF was in the saliva, and was delivered into the midgut together with the blood and induced exflagellation in the midgut.

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