Basic researchEffect of ethanol and ether in the prevention of calcification of bioprostheses
Review articleOpen access

AbstractBackground. Lipids play a significant role in the process of calcification of bioprostheses. We assessed whether lipid extraction by ethanol, ether, or a surfactant could mitigate calcification of glutaraldehyde-treated bioprostheses.Methods. On 200 bovine pericardium samples pretreated with 0.6% glutaraldehyde, lipid extraction was carried out by ethanol, ether, or the tween 80 surfactant, and combinations thereof. The treated tissues were implanted subcutaneously in 50 juvenile rats for 4 and 6 months. Lipids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and chromatography before implantation. Calcium content of implanted tissues was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer.Results. Ethanol, ether, or surfactant did mitigate calcification. The most efficient pretreatments were the combination of ethanol and surfactant (calcium content: 15.5 ± 6.8 μg/mg dry tissue after 6 months implantation) or the combination of ethanol, ether, and surfactant (13.1 ± 6.2 μg/mg dry tissue) when compared with surfactant alone (42.9 ± 12.7 μg/mg dry tissue).Conclusions. Ethanol or the combination of ethanol and ether added to the currently used glutaraldehyde-surfactant treatment further mitigates calcification.

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