SAAOG paperThe vascular portion of the cardinal ligament: surgical significance during radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer
Review articleOpen access

ObjectiveThe objective of the study was to analyze the histopathologic content of the vascular portion of the cardinal ligament in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer.Study DesignThe vascular portion of the cardinal ligament was completely removed during radical hysterectomy. The maximum cervical diameter and length of the vascular ligament were measured on the fresh specimen. After inking, the pathologist separated and embedded the entire vascular segment from each side. Microscopic examination followed.ResultsEighty-four patients were available for analysis. The mean cervical diameter was 3.9 cm (2-8), whereas the mean vascular segment length on the right and left sides were 4 cm (1-10) and 3.8 cm (1-7), respectively. Mean number of vascular segment lymph nodes were as follows: medial right = 0.7 (0-4), medial left = 0.6 (0-5), lateral right = 0.4 (0-3), and lateral left = 0.6 (0-6). Mean diameter of medial and lateral lymph nodes were 2 mm (0.25-8) and 3.3 mm (0.25-16), respectively. The length of the vascular segment correlated inversely with maximum cervical diameter. Thirty-one percent (26 of 84) had positive pelvic side wall lymph nodes. Fourteen patients had positive vascular segment lymph nodes (1 positive = 7, more than 1 positive = 7). Three of 7 patients had bilateral positive vascular segment lymph nodes; all 7 had microscopic disease in the paravaginal soft tissue, and all 7 had positive pelvic side wall lymph nodes (6 of 7 bilateral). Including the 14 patients, a total of 19 had nodal or nonnodal microscopic disease in the vascular segment. Of these, 7 had disease in the lateral half of the vascular ligament. Histologic sectioning revealed nerve twigs and/or scattered ganglia in the vascular segment but no large nerve trunks.ConclusionAmong a population of women with high-risk, early-stage cervical cancer, the lateral vascular segment of the cardinal ligament contained metastatic disease in a substantial number of patients. This segment contains no major nerve trunks. When radical hysterectomy is chosen as primary treatment for such patients, the vascular segment of the cardinal ligament should be completely excised.

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