3 - Structure and Properties of Water
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Publisher SummaryThe water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. The water molecule is positively charged on one side and negatively charged on the other and is, thus, a dipole. The two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons with a single oxygen atom. The two hydrogen atoms of the water molecule are separated at an angle of 103 to 106 degrees, measured with the oxygen atom as the apex of the angle and with the two hydrogen protons as points on the angle sides. The electron pairs shared between the oxygen nucleus and the two hydrogen protons only partially screen (neutralize) the positive charge of the protons. The result is that the proton side of the molecule becomes the positive side of the water molecule. The chapter lists 15 properties of water. For example, water has the highest specific heat of any known substance except liquid ammonia, which is about 13 percent higher. The heat of vaporization of water is the highest known. The heat of vaporization is defined as the amount of heat needed to turn one gram of a liquid into vapor, without a rise in the temperature of the liquid. The heat of fusion of water is unusually high. The heat of fusion is the quantity of heat necessary to change one gram of a solid to a liquid with no temperature change.

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