Photoexcitation of low-lying collective states in 156,158,160Gd☆
Review articleOpen access

AbstractStrong low-energy collective transitions in the deformed nuclei 156,158,160Gd have been observed with nuclear resonance fluorescence techniques utilizing 3.5 MeV bremsstrahlung and a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. It is most probable that a new collective M1 mode, predicted by several theoretical models of deformed nuclei and discovered recently in 156,158Gd(e, e′) experiments, has been observed. The Gd(γ, γ′) measurements reveal a strong coupling of the levels to the first rotational 2+ state as expected in the IBA-2 model. If all the transitions reported are due to M1 excitations, a fragmentation of strength is present in 158,160Gd and the sums of B(M1)↑ values amount to 1.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.5, and 2.3 ± 0.6 μ02 for 156,158,160Gd, respectively.

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