Reactions of 2-thiophenesulphonyl chloride with anion and neutral nucleophiles: Solvent effects on nucleophilic reactivity correlations
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AbstractThe reaction kinetics of 2-thiophenesulphonyl chloride with anion and neutral nucleophiles was studied in H2O, D2O and in protic solvents-H2O (10% vv) and aprotic solvents-H2O (10% vv) mixtures at 25°. Analysing the rate constants measured in water by Bronsted, Ritchie and Edwards equations the conclusion drawn that, for the nucleophilic order against the sulphonyl sulphur, basicity is of prime importance, although there may well be some dependence on polarizability and solvation. Solvent isotope effects show that the reactions occur by nucleophilic catalysis rather than by a general base mechanism. Water is the solvent in which there is the greater reactivity than in either protic solvents or aprotic-protic mixtures. By solubility measurements and applying Parker's equation the contributions of solvation energies of both reactants and transition states to the free energy of activation are calculated. Solvent effects on nucleophilic reactivities are discussed in terms of S parameters (similar to Ritchie N+ parameters), and by the approach of multiparameter empirical correlations. The data point out that solvation plays a large role on nucleophilic order. A complete comprehension of the problem would require an equation that takes into some account solvent effects. The homogeneous comparison of 2-thiophenesulphonyl chloride data with those of α-disulphone, p-anisyl p-methoxybenzenesulphinyl sulphone and benzenesulphonyl chloride shows that the same factors are involved in driving the nucleophilic reactivity for these compounds.

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