Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in Chinese cooked foods
Review articleOpen access

AbstractSamples of 7 foods commonly eaten in the Northeast of China (i.e. fried and broiled fishes and broiled meat) were tested for mutagenicity on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S9 mix. The basic fractions of the samples were mutagenic, inducing 33–2930 revertants/g of cooked food. Fried walleye pollack (a kind of cod fish heated on a stainless steel pan) showed the highest mutagenicity, so attempts were made to isolate mutagens from the basic fraction of this food. The mutagens were purified by treatment with blue cotton and HPLC on a semi-preparative ODS column and analytical cation exchange and ODS columns. 5 mutagens were isolated and identified as 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). 1 g of fried fish was estimated to contain 0.16 ng of IQ, 0.03 ng of MeIQ, 6.44 ng of MeIQx, 0.10 ng of 4,8-DiMeIQx and 69.2 ng of PhIP. MeIQx and PhIP accounted for 24% and 4.7%, respectively, of the total mutagenicity. The other 3 heterocyclic amines were each responsible for only 0.3–1.2% of the total mutagenicity.

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