Synthesis and biological activity of 1-methyl-tryptophan-tirapazamine hybrids as hypoxia-targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors
Review articleOpen access

AbstractWe have designed and synthesized new hypoxic-neoplastic cells-targeted indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors. 1-Methyl-tryptophan (1MT)-tirapazamine (TPZ, 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide) hybrid inhibitors including 1 (TX-2236), 2 (TX-2235), 3 (TX-2228), and 4 (TX-2234) were prepared. All of these compounds were uncompetitive IDO inhibitors. TPZ-monoxide hybrids 1 and 3 showed higher IDO inhibitory activities than TPZ hybrids 2 and 4. Among these hybrids, hybrid 1 was the most potent IDO inhibitor. TPZ hybrids 2 and 4 showed stronger hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity than TPZ to EMT6/KU cells. These data suggest that TPZ hybrids 2 and 4 may act through their dual biological functions: first, they function as hypoxic cytotoxins in hypoxic cells, and then are metabolized to their TPZ-monoxide (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1-oxide) hybrids, which function as IDO inhibitors.

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