Comparing severity of continuous torrefaction for five biomass with a wide range of bulk density and particle size
Review articleOpen access

Highlights•Willow, wheat straw, cattail, moringa & spruce pellets were torrefied in a horizontal moving bed.•Average particle mass and mass flowrate were predictive of torrefaction mass yield for 4/5 types.•Mass flow correlated to mass yield at 250 °C by Ym = 0.35Q+0.7, validated by additional datapoints.•The long, cylindrical shape of wheat straw seemed to limit torrefaction.•Horizontal moving bed should be concluded to be a feedstock-flexible design for torrefaction.

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