Basic ResearchEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress Aggravates Viral Myocarditis by Raising Inflammation Through the IRE1-Associated NF-κB Pathway
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Abstract:

AbstractBackgroundViral myocarditis, which is mostly caused by coxsackievirus infection, is characterized by myocardial inflammation. Abnormal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress participates in many heart diseases, but its role in viral myocarditis remains unsolved.MethodsWe investigated the influence of ER stress in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis by dynamically detecting its activation in CVB3-infected hearts, analyzing its association with myocarditis severity, and exploring its impact on disease development by modulating the strength of ER stress with the chemical activator tunicamycin (Tm) or the inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). The underlying signal pathway of ER stress in CVB3-induced myocarditis was also deciphered.ResultsWe found that myocardial expression of Grp78 and Grp94, 2 ER stress markers, was significantly increased after CVB3 infection and positively correlated with myocarditis severity. Consistently, Tm-augmented ER stress obviously aggravated myocarditis, as shown by more severe myocardial inflammation, reduced cardiac function, and a lower survival rate, whereas TUDCA decreased ER stress and obviously alleviated myocarditis. This pathologic effect of ER stress could be attributed to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) production through the IRE1-associated nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB) pathway.ConclusionsER stress accentuated CVB3-induced myocardial inflammation through the IRE1-associated NF-κB pathway. This study may help us understand the role of ER stress in viral myocarditis and promote the development of corresponding therapeutic strategies based on manipulating ER stress.

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