Developments in modelling of gas injection and slag foaming
Review articleOpen access

AbstractGas injection into metallurgical ladles has been an active area of CFD modelling for many years. Recent work with both Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks is presented for bottom stirring in ladle and steelmaking electric furnace configurations. Comparison with water and liquid metal results shows that the Lagrangian models provide a better representation of the systems. Slag foaming is an important phenomenon in smelting–reduction processes and electric furnace steelmaking. The void fraction in the foam is generally greater than 0.9, a regime that has received considerably less attention than bottom stirring where the local void fraction is less than 0.1. Again, it was found, by comparison with experimental data, that Lagrangian models were generally preferable over Eulerian models.

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