Quantitative changes in glycosaminoglycans in the lungs of rats exposed to diesel exhaust
Review articleOpen access

AbstractExposure to diesel exhaust (DE) induces lesions in lung epithelium by generation of reactive oxygen species. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG), components of extracellar matrix, are thought to play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation in the repair process of injured tissue. We investigated how GAG are related to the recovery of lung tissue from injury. Using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we determined the amounts of GAG, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and hyaluronan (HA) in the lungs of rats exposed to DE for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0.3 or 3 mg/m3 as suspended particulate matter, or to filtered air. The contents of CS and HA in the surroundings of the bronchi were significantly increased after exposure to DE. In addition, immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-positive cells as a marker of cell damage, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells also increased in the same areas in which the levels of GAG were elevated in the lungs of rats exposed to 3 mg/m3 DE. These results suggest that CS and HA in the lung contribute to cell proliferation and remodeling in the process of recovery from injury caused by exposure to DE.

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