PaperDevelopment and application of predictive equations of maximal static moments generated by the trunk musculature
Review articleOpen access

AbstractObjective. To develop and apply regression equations that predict the maximal static moments generated by the extensor, axial rotator and lateral flexor muscles of the trunk as a function of forward bending angles and asymmetrical positions of the torso in human subjects.Design. Using experimental data, polynomial predictive equations were developed. The equations were applied in an algorithm to estimate the maximal moment generated by individual subjects.Methods. Three groups of male subjects participated in the evaluation of the effect of forward bending and trunk asymmetry on the static moment of the extensor, right axial rotator, and right lateral flexor muscles of the trunk, respectively. Two other groups of male subjects were evaluated to test the validity of the algorithm. During the dynamometric tests, the three-dimensional position of the trunk was determined using cinematography techniques.Results. For the extensor muscles, a curvilinear increase of the maximal moment was observed with forward bending, with a slight decrease of the moment on each side of the neutral position. For the right axial rotator muscles, both forward bending and left asymmetrical position of the trunk increased the maximal moments generated by these muscles. The right lateral flexors were stronger in the standing and mid-flexion positions than in other positions. First-order, second-order and interaction terms appear in the regression equations to account for the effect of forward bending and asymmetrical positions. The regression equation for the extensors and right axial rotator muscles have R2 coefficients (range 0.56–0.76) higher than those of the lateral flexor regression equations (range 0.09–0.12). The algorithm results in an average error of 13% in predicting the strength of extensor and axial rotator muscles of individual subjects.Conclusion. The results have shown that strength of the extensor and axial rotator muscles is affected by forward bending and the asymmetry of the trunk, while strength of the lateral flexor muscles is only dependent on the forward bending position. The regression equations and the corresponding algorithm are applicable for the range of positions used in the study.

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