First-in-human evaluation of genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by bite of Anopheles mosquitoes to adult volunteers☆
Review articleOpen access

Highlights•Report on first-in-human safety and immunogenicity testing of a genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) P. falciparum strain.•Five out of six volunteers remained peripheral blood smear negative after GAP-infected mosquitoe bite.•Severe attenuation and favorable immune responses following administration p52−/p36− GAP were observed.•Results suggest that further development of live-attenuated GAP strains using genetic engineering should be pursued.

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