Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese
Review articleOpen access

AbstractThe influence of two proteinases (Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase and Micrococcus sp. cysteine proteinase) and two starter culture levels (0.1% and 1%) on biogenic amine formation has been studied in raw ewes’ milk Manchego cheese. Amino acid decarboxylating micro-organisms were determined on tyrosine enriched selective media. Biogenic amines were analysed by capillary electrophoresis in citrate buffer at pH 3.6. Addition of proteinases and level of starter culture did not influence the population of micro-organisms with amino acid decarboxylating activity, which represented on average 1% of the bacterial population in 30-day-old cheeses. Tyramine and histamine were detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Concentrations of tyramine and histamine were higher in cheeses made from milk with neutral proteinase (up to 356 and 284 mg kg−1, respectively, after 90 days) than in cheeses made from milk with cysteine proteinase (up to 269 and 189 mg kg−1, respectively) or with no proteinase added (up to 305 and 226 mg kg−1, respectively). Formation of tyramine and histamine was also favoured in cheeses made with 1% starter culture with respect to cheeses made with only 0.1% starter culture, probably due to the higher pH values of the former cheeses. After 90 days of ripening, concentrations of 10–20 mg kg−1 phenylethylamine were observed in 9 of the 12 batches, and levels <10 mg kg−1 tryptamine were only detected in 3 batches, with no significant relationship between the concentration of these amines and proteinase addition or level of starter culture.

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