Levels and patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) in selected food items from Northwest Russia (1998–2002) and implications for dietary exposure
Review articleOpen access

AbstractResidues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in 70 selected food items from Northwest Russia in 1998–2002. Levels of PCBs ranged from 0.2 to 16 ng/g wet weight (ww) in dairy products and fats, 0.2 to 23 ng/g ww in meat products, 0.5 to 16 ng/g ww in eggs and 0.3 to 30 ng/g ww in fish. High levels of DDT (16 ng/g ww) were found in locally produced butter from Kola Peninsula, in pork fat from Arkhangels region (10 to 130 ng/g ww) and in some fish samples from White Sea and Kargopol region (17 and 30 ng/g ww). Findings of low DDE/DDT ratios in many of the studied food items indicated recent contamination to DDTs. Mean levels of sum TEQsWHO1998 of dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs: PCBs 105, 118, 156 and 157 (∑ mo-PCBs-TEQsWHO1998) were highest in dairy products, chicken eggs and fish, with levels of 0.292, 0.245 and 0.254 pg/g ww, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for ∑ mo-PCBs-TEQsWHO1998 was 0.74 pg/kgbw/day and in the same range as in Sweden and Denmark. Fish, dairy products, eggs and meat were the main contributors to the EDI of ∑ mo-PCBs-TEQsWHO1998. The EDIs of DDTs, HCHs and HCB were several times higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Consumption of meat and poultry were important sources for intake of DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Contamination of animal feed and agricultural practice were assumed the most important causes for the results in the present study. However, increased control on maximum residue levels in food and feed may have resulted in large changes on levels and patterns of POPs in food in the studied areas.

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