Regular ArticleComparative Toxicokinetics of Chlorinated and Brominated Haloacetates in F344 Rats
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AbstractChloro, bromo, and mixed bromochloro haloacetates (HAs) are by-products of drinking water disinfection and are hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. We compared the toxicokinetics of a series of di-HAs, dichloro (DCA), bromochloro (BCA), dibromo (DBA) and tri-HAs: trichloro (TCA), bromodichloro (BDCA), chlorodibromo (CDBA), and tribromo (TBA) after iv and oral dosing (500 μm/kg) in male F344 rats. The blood concentrations of the HAs after iv injection declined in a bi-exponential manner with a short but pronounced distributive phase. The structural features that had the greatest influence on the disposition of HAs were substitution of a halogen for a hydrogen and the degree of bromine substitution. All di-HAs had blood elimination half-lives of less than 4 h (DCA > DBA, BCA) compared to the tri-HAs, which had half-lives that varied from 0.6 to 8.0 h (TCA > BDCA > CDBA > TBA). The urinary excretion of all di-HAs was low and accounted for less than 3% of the dose in contrast to the tri-HAs, where urinary excretion accounted for at least 30% of the dose. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated the steady-state apparent volume of distribution varied between 301 and 881 ml/kg among the HAs, but the variation was not statistically significant (P > 0.17). The blood concentration–time profiles for all di-HAs after oral dosing was complex and exhibited multiple peaks. This did not appear to be due to enterohepatic recirculation, as bile duct cannulated animals also displayed similar profiles. In contrast, the profiles for the tri-HAs did not exhibit multiple peaking after oral dosing and could be described using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The oral bioavailability of the HAs varied between 30% (DBA) and 116% (TCA), depending on the number of halogen substituents and the degree of bromine substitution. In general, three patterns of elimination for the HAs can be broadly described: low metabolism with moderate renal clearance (TCA), high metabolism and renal clearance (BDCA, CDBA, TBA), and high metabolism, low renal clearance (DCA, BCA, DBA).

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