Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation
Review articleOpen access
Abstract:

Highlights•Sewage watewaters (TW) sampled from a Municipal Treatment Sewage Plant are biologically active in mice and in vitro.•In male mice TW promotes an increase in adipose mass deposition following exposure from foetal to adult life. A similar effect is produced by BPA.•The expression of key genes of the adipose metabolism is increased in epidydimal fat both by TW and BPA.•An extract from the TW which concentrated the contained chemicals by a factor of 1000, is able to stimulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.•The major chemicals contained in the TW, bisphenol A and nonylphenol, are able to promote adipocyte differentiation at the low environmentally relevant doses as are found in the TW.

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