Training conference, CONFÉRENCE D’ENSEIGNEMENT, CONGRÈS SFA, LYON, DÉCEMBRE 2007Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talusTraitement des lésions ostéochondrales de l’astragale
Review articleOpen access

SummaryThis review article provides a current concepts overview of osteochondral defects of the talus, with special emphasis on treatment options, their indications and future developments. Osteochondral defects of the talar dome are mostly caused by a traumatic event. They may lead to deep ankle pain on weight-bearing, prolonged swelling, diminished range of motion and synovitis. Plain radiographs may disclose the lesion. For further diagnostic evaluation, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated similar accuracy. Computed tomography is preferred for preoperative planning. Treatment options are diverse and up to the present there is no consensus. Based on the current literature, we present a treatment algorithm that is mainly guided by the size of the lesion. Asymptomatic or low-symptomatic lesions are treated nonoperatively. The primary surgical treatment of defects up to 15 mm in diameter consists of arthroscopic debridement and bone marrow stimulation. For large cystic talar lesions, retrograde drilling combined with a bone graft is an important alternative. In adolescents or in (sub)acute situations, in which the fragment is 15 mm or larger, fixation of the fragment is preferred. Osteochondral autograft transfer and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), with or without a cancellous bone graft, are recommended for secondary cases as well as large lesions.

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