Observations of dawn–dusk aligned polar cap aurora during the substorms of January 21, 2005
Review articleOpen access

AbstractA new type of polar cap aurora, dawn–dusk aligned polar cap aurora (DDAPCA), was detected during the exceptionally intense January 21, 2005 substorm (AEmax=3504 nT). The DDAPCA was located at very high latitude (>85° MLAT) in the polar cap region. As the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) GSM By component rotated from a positive to a negative value, the DDAPCA tilt angle relative to the dawn–dusk direction rotated anticlockwise and reached ∼45°. It is speculated that the DDAPCA arises from the formation of an X-line in the distant (>80RE) tail due to polar cap magnetic field reconnection under unusually high solar wind compression conditions.

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