Investigative urologyReplacement of Intestinal Mucosa With Urothelium in Rat Augmented Bladders Using Intravesical Photodynamic Therapy With 5-Aminolaevulinic Acid
Review articleOpen access

PurposeWe evaluated the efficacy of intravesical aminolevulinic acid (δ-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride) (Frontier Scientific, Logan, Utah) and photodynamic therapy for the removal of small intestinal mucosa in augmented bladders in a rat model.Materials and MethodsEnterocystoplasty was performed in 70 female rats using a patch of terminal ileum. A total of 28 were used to determine the pharmacokinetics (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M) and dwell time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) of intravesically administered aminolevulinic acid to optimize intestinal mucosal absorption and minimize bladder mucosal absorption. The remaining augmented rats were treated with intravesical photodynamic therapy at light doses of 75, 100 and 125 J. Ileal and bladder tissues were evaluated by light microscopy. Cystometric studies to evaluate bladder volume were measured before and after photodynamic therapy.ResultsThe concentration of 0.3 M aminolevulinic acid with a dwell time of 30 minutes resulted in an average ± SE bowel-to-bladder concentration of 2,156 ± 269/749 ± 62 ng/gm (ratio 2.9:1). After photodynamic therapy histology revealed uniform ablation and replacement of the intestinal mucosa with urothelium and minimal damage to the bladder wall at all light doses. Bladder cystometry revealed no significant change in bladder capacity after photodynamic therapy.ConclusionsIn the rat model intravesical aminolevulinic acid and photodynamic therapy resulted in the replacement of intestinal mucosa with urothelium, leaving the underlying muscular layer intact. This could potentially be a viable option for patients with a preexisting bladder augment.

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