Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions
Review articleOpen access

Highlights•Lattice defects/vacancies attributed high Tc –ferromagnetism.•Transition metal and rare earth ions deform the wurtzite ZnO lattice to induce defects.•Oxygen vacancies are more favorable than Zn with Ni, Cu, Ce into ZnO.•Defects assisted long-range ferromagnetism of doped ZnO include cluster and spin-glass growth.

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